microformats-ja

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= microformats =
= microformats =
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== What are microformats? ==
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== microformatsとは何か? ==
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=== microformats are ===
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=== microformatsとはこのようなものだ ===
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* a way of thinking about data
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* データについて考える方法
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* design principles for formats
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* フォーマットのための設計原則
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* adapted to current behaviors and usage patterns ([http://ifindkarma.typepad.com/relax/2004/12/microformats.html "Pave the cow paths." - Adam Rifkin])  
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* 現在の振る舞いと用法パターンに順応するもの ([http://ifindkarma.typepad.com/relax/2004/12/microformats.html "Pave the cow paths." - Adam Rifkin])  
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* highly correlated with semantic XHTML, AKA the [http://www.tantek.com/presentations/2004etech/realworldsemanticspres.html real world semantics, AKA lowercase semantic web], AKA [http://www.whump.com/moreLikeThis/link/04069 lossless XHTML]
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* 意味的XHTMLと高度に相関した[「http://www.tantek.com/presentations/2004etech/realworldsemanticspres.html 実世界意味論」、「小文字のセマンティックウェブ」]
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* described by [http://tantek.com/log/2005/03.html#d13t1722 Tantek's recent presentation at SXSW: The Elements of Meaningful XHTML]
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* [http://www.whump.com/moreLikeThis/link/04069 「損失の無いXHTML」]として知られるもの
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* a set of simple open data format standards that a diverse community of individuals and organizations are actively developing and implementing for more/better structured blogging and web microcontent publishing in general.
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* [http://tantek.com/log/2005/03.html#d13t1722 Tantek's recent presentation at SXSW: The Elements of Meaningful XHTML]に記載されているもの
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* [http://theryanking.com/blog/archives/2005/04/07/an-evolutionary-revolution/ "An evolutionary revolution" - Ryan King]
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* より適切に構造化されたウェブログや小さめのコンテンツを一般に公開するための、様々な個人や組織のコミュニティで活発に開発や実装が行われているシンプルなデータフォーマットのオープンスタンダードの集合
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* all the above.
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* [http://theryanking.com/blog/archives/2005/04/07/an-evolutionary-revolution/ 「進化論的な革命」 - Ryan King]
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* 上記のすべて
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=== microformats are not ===
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=== microformatsはこのようなものではない ===
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* a new language
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* 新しい言語
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* infinitely extensible and open-ended
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* 無限に拡張可能であり、無制限なもの
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* an attempt to get everyone to change their behavior and rewrite their tools
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* 皆がその振る舞いを変え、そのツールを書き直させようとする企み
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* a whole new approach that throws away what already works today
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* 今日既に働いているものを無駄にする真新しいアプローチ
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* a panacea for all taxonomies, ontologies, and other such abstractions
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* すべての分類学(taxonomies)、オントロジー(ontologies)および他のそのような抽象化のための万能薬
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* defining the whole world, or even just boiling the ocean
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* 全世界を定義したり、広範囲に悪影響をあたえるだけのもの(defining the whole world, or even just boiling the ocean)
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* controlled by any individual or organization
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* どこかの個人や組織にコントロールされているもの
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* any of the above
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* 上記のいずれでもない
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== the microformats principles ==
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== microformatsの原則 ==
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* solve a specific problem
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* 特定の問題を解決する
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* start as simple as possible
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* できるだけ簡単に始める
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** solve simpler problems first
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** 最初に簡単な問題を解決する
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** make evolutionary improvements
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** 進化的に改良を行う
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* design for humans first, machines second
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* 第一に人間のために、第二に機械のために設計する
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** be presentable ''and'' parsable
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** 見栄えよく、''そして''機械的に解釈できるように
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** ''visible data'' is much better for humans than ''invisible metadata''
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** 人間にとって''見えるデータ''''見えないメタデータ''よりも断然良い
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** adapt to current behaviors and usage patterns, e.g. (X)HTML, blogging
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** 例えば(X)HTMLやウェブログのように現在の振る舞いと用法パターンに順応する
** [http://tantek.com/log/2003/0813t1158.html#handauthoring ease of authoring is important]
** [http://tantek.com/log/2003/0813t1158.html#handauthoring ease of authoring is important]
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* reuse building blocks from widely adopted standards
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* 広く採用された標準に少しずつ追加していく
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** [http://tantek.com/presentations/20040928sdforumws/semantic-xhtml.html semantic], [http://tantek.com/presentations/2005/03/elementsofxhtml meaningful (X)HTML]. See [[SemanticXHTMLDesignPrinciples]] for more details.
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** [http://tantek.com/presentations/20040928sdforumws/semantic-xhtml.html semantic][http://tantek.com/presentations/2005/03/elementsofxhtml 意味付けされた(X)HTML]。詳しくは[[SemanticXHTMLDesignPrinciples]]を参照。
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** existing microformats
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** 既存のmicroformats
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** well established schemas from interoperable RFCs
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** RFCによって規格化された方が良い
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* modularity / embeddability
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* モジュール化する / 埋め込めるようにする
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** design to be reused and embedded inside existing formats and microformats
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** 既存のフォーマットやmicroformatsの中に埋め込んだり再利用できたりするように設計する
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* enable and encourage decentralized and distributed development, content, services
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* 分散的に処理可能なコンテンツやサービスの提供、開発を促すものとなる
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** explicitly encourage the original "spirit of the Web"
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** Webが最初期から持つ特長 - Webの精神 - を大いに推奨する
* Related Principles we re-use from other design paradigms
* Related Principles we re-use from other design paradigms
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** [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Don%C2%B4t_repeat_yourself DRY] (Don't Repeat Yourself)
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** [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Don´t_repeat_yourself DRY] (Don't Repeat Yourself)
** [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Principle_of_least_surprise Least Surprise]
** [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Principle_of_least_surprise Least Surprise]
** [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pareto_principle Pareto Principle] (80/20)
** [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pareto_principle Pareto Principle] (80/20)
** Data Integrity.  One of the common objectives which many of the principles help achieve is data integrity.
** Data Integrity.  One of the common objectives which many of the principles help achieve is data integrity.
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*** Visible data = more accurate data. By designing for humans first and making the data presentable (thus viewed and ''verified'' by humans), the data is inevitably more accurate not only to begin with (as errors are easily/quickly noticed by those viewing the pages/sites), but over time as well, in that changes are noticed, and if data becomes out-of-date or obsolete, that's more liklely to be noticed as well.  This is in direct contrast to "side files" and invisible data like that contained in <code>&lt;meta&gt;</code> tags.
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*** Visible data = more accurate data. By designing for humans first and making the data presentable (thus viewed and ''verified'' by humans), the data is inevitably more accurate not only to begin with (as errors are easily/quickly noticed by those viewing the pages/sites), but over time as well, in that changes are noticed, and if data becomes out-of-date or obsolete, that's more liklely to be noticed as well.  This is in direct contrast to "side files" and invisible data like that contained in <code>
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*** Not repeating yourself (following DRY) - means there are fewer chances for inconsistency
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*** Multi-language integrity.  Perhaps not a principle, but many of those involved with microformats have found that consistently [[using-utf-8|using UTF-8]] helps ensure that the human text content itself is not corrupted, especially when using non-ASCII7 characters.
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== current microformats ==
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See the [[Main_Page|main page]] for a list of current microformats specifications, drafts, and discussions.
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== more thoughts on how microformats are different ==
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There are plenty of existing formats that are ''nearly'' totally useless/ignored.
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They're not ''totally'' useless though. They're useful in that they illustrate what at least someone thought might be useful, which unfortunately is typically a lone-inventor working a-priori without any domain expertise.
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Or there is the other extreme. Lots of corporate inventors working with plenty of experience, over-designing a format for what ''might'' be needed some day.  In particularly bad cases, the corporate vendors collude to prevent openness and/or adoptability by the open source community.  Media standards [http://dannyayers.com/archives/2005/09/24/qotd-23/ often suffer from this kind of deliberate "strategic" positioning].
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We seek to combat all of those problems with the microformat approach.
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* We're not lone-inventors; we're a [http://microformats.org/discuss/ community].
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* We don't work [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/A_priori a-priori] ("from reason alone"); we require documentation of existing examples, previous attempts at formats. See [[process]].
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* When lacking domain expertise, we seek out the domain experts to provide it, and we immerse ourselves in examples and prior art from the domain (see previous point).
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* We do our work in the [[Main_Page|open]] with [http://microformats.org/discuss/ open discussion forums].
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* We're a diverse mix of corporate, independent, hobbyist, enthusiast.
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* We don't over-design.  We under-design, deliberately, and then only add things when they are absolutely necessary.
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* We adopt very liberal copyright/licensing (CC,GMPG,IETF,W3C) and patent positions (RF,IETF,W3C).
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* We ruthlessly self-criticize based on our [http://microformats.org/wiki/microformats#the_microformats_principles principles] in order to keep to the above.
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Some ask what the purpose of the (intended) standards is.
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Why do you need purpose? More often than not, premature focus on purpose tends to distort data formats towards a particular application which may not be all that relevant. Hence rather than focus on a-priori purpose, we focus on modeling existing behavior, with the knowledge that additional structure will yield plenty of interesting uses, most of which we will not be able to a-priori predict.
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This is obviously a very different approach than traditional data format efforts.
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Current revision


Contents

microformats

microformatsとは何か?

microformatsとはこのようなものだ

microformatsはこのようなものではない

microformatsの原則


microformats-ja was last modified: Tuesday, January 6th, 2009

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