Citation microformat efforts
This wiki page outlines the overall effort to develop a citation microformat. We are documenting current examples of cites/citations on the web today, their implicit/explicit schemas, and current cite/citation formats, with the intent of deriving a cite microformat from that research.
This specification is (C) 2004-2021 by the authors. However, the authors intend to submit (or already have submitted, see details in the spec) this specification to a standards body with a liberal copyright/licensing policy such as the GMPG, IETF, and/or W3C. Anyone wishing to contribute should read their copyright principles, policies and licenses (e.g. the GMPG Principles) and agree to them, including licensing of all contributions under all required licenses (e.g. CC-by 1.0 and later), before contributing.
Semantic XHTML Design Principles
Note: the Semantic XHTML Design Principles were written primarily within the context of developing hCard and hCalendar, thus it may be easier to understand these principles in the context of the hCard design methodology (i.e. read that first). Tantek
XHTML is built on XML, and thus XHTML based formats can be used not only for convenient display presentation, but also for general purpose data exchange. In many ways, XHTML based formats exemplify the best of both HTML and XML worlds. However, when building XHTML based formats, it helps to have a guiding set of principles.
- Reuse the schema (names, objects, properties, values, types, hierarchies, constraints) as much as possible from pre-existing, established, well-supported standards by reference. Avoid restating constraints expressed in the source standard. Informative mentions are ok.
- For types with multiple components, use nested elements with class names equivalent to the names of the components.
- Plural components are made singular, and thus multiple nested elements are used to represent multiple text values that are comma-delimited.
- Use the most accurately precise semantic XHTML building block for each object etc.
- Otherwise use a generic structural element (e.g.
<div>), or the appropriate contextual element (e.g. an
- Use class names based on names from the original schema, unless the semantic XHTML building block precisely represents that part of the original schema. If names in the source schema are case-insensitive, then use an all lowercase equivalent. Components names implicit in prose (rather than explicit in the defined schema) should also use lowercase equivalents for ease of use. Spaces in component names become dash '-' characters.
- Finally, if the format of the data according to the original schema is too long and/or not human-friendly, use
<abbr>instead of a generic structural element, and place the literal data into the 'title' attribute (where abbr expansions go), and the more brief and human readable equivalent into the element itself. Further informative explanation of this use of
<abbr>: Human vs. ISO8601 dates problem solved
Citation Examples are citations found in the wild that could benefit from semantic mark-up. This is a growing list of examples from all sorts of places including W3C specifications, RFCs and others. These are the examples which will determine the schema for the citation microformat.
Known Citation Formats
The Citation Formats Page will be a running tab of known formats for publishing citations.
Eventually, i would like to see a chart of how each value from the implicit schema determined by the Citation Examples is represented in each format, and what formats have additional properties that do not map between them. (For example, Format1 calls 'author' 'author', in format2 'author' is called 'writer'. etc)
- existing-classes Using existing class names and creating new names, create property names for the profile
- Based on implicit schemas in Citation Examples, and terms from one or more Citation Formats, do some Citation Brainstorming for a simple citation microformat.
- Create additional strawman proposals
My hope for this microformat is that it can be a sort of module that can be used in other microformats. Once this is developed and flushed out, citation references could easily be used for publications on a Resume/CV, therefore the citation microformat would be a module (subset) of all the possible Resume Values.
Other Microformats that could use the Citation Module
Other Microformats that the Citation Module will use
- hCard encodings for things like Author, Publisher (people and companies)
- hAtom encodings as a possible container, and author/date-time properties
- rel-tag encoding for keywords
- rel-license encoding for copyright
- XMLResume: if part of the drive for citations is for publications for a resume/CV then some of this information could be useful
- CiteUlike is a free service to help academics to share, store, and organise the academic papers they are reading
- OpenURL with Autodiscovery
- "Gather, Create, Share" and "Personal Collection Systems" memes, and systems implementing either or both
- Metadata Object Description Schema developed by the Library of Congress
- Guidelines for Encoding Bibliographic Citation Information in Dublin Core Metadata
- BibTeX reference from Dana Jacobsen
- RIS Format Specification from Thomson ResearchSoft, makers of ReferenceManager
- Zotero - "Firefox extension to help you collect, manage, and cite your research sources"
- ISBN (ISBN on Wikipedia)
- ISSN (ISSN on Wikipedia)