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Example Citation Formats

The following examples are real world examples that been pulled from places around the web. Please add to this list. The idea is that we get a solid sample of examples and see what commonalities there are amonst them and try to build this microformat so that it can meet 80% of all the possible properties.

Citation Mark Up in the Wild

Mark up examples from reference publisher's websites (online catalogs), including ABC-CLIO, Greenwood Press, Marshall Cavendish, Oxford University Press (USA) and Thomson Gale. Examples are broken down and organized by element.

View complete citations in the wild.

Book titles:

<span id="title" class="producttitle">The 1920's</span> (ABC-CLIO product detail page)

<div class="title"> <a href="...">The Greenwood Encyclopedia of World Folklore and Folklife</a> </div> (Greenwood Press homepage)

<span id="lblTitle" class="book_headline block">The Greenwood Encyclopedia of World Folklore and Folklife</span> (Greenwood Press product detail page)

<td width="35%"><font id="title_catalogue_title_font">Title</font></td> <td width="65%"><font id="text">The New Terrorism: Anatomy, Trends and Counter-strategies</font></td> (Marshall Cavendish product detail page)

<h2> <a href="...">The Glorious Cause</a> </h2> (Oxford Univ. Press, homepage)

<h1>The Glorious Cause</h1> (OUP, product detail page)

<h2>Contemporary Literary Criticism</h2> (Thomson Gale, product detail page)

<span id="ctlBookDetailHeader_lblTitle" class="ProdTitle">Talk and Interaction in Social Research Methods</span> (SAGE Publications)

Also, many examples where books presented in table format with Title as cell header, or presented "Title: "

Book Series Name:

<span id="serieslbl" class="productsubtitle"><a href="...">Teaching With Documents Series</a></span> (ABC-CLIO)


<span id="subtitle" class="productsubtitle"></span> (ABC-CLIO)

<div class="sub_title">[Four Volumes]</div> (Greenwood, homepage)

<span id="lblSubTitle" class="book_subline">[Four Volumes]</span> (Greenwood, product page)

<div class="subTitle"> The American Revolution, 1763-1789 </div> (OUP)


<span id="credit" class="productauthor"></span> (ABC-CLIO)

<div class="author">William M. Clements</div> (Greenwood)

<td width="35%"><font id="title_catalogue_title_font">Authors</font></td> <td width="65%"><font id="text">Andrew Tan & Kumar Ramakrishna (eds)</font></td> (Marshall Cavendish)

<div class="byline"> Robert Middlekauff </div> (OUP)

Publication Date:

<span id="pubdate" class="productdetailbody">11/2001</span> (ABC-CLIO -- see table structure)

<div id="pnlPubDate"> <span class="book_options">Publication Date:</span> <span id="lblPubDate">12/30/2005</span> </div> (Greenwood, detail page)

<span class="publicationDate"> Feb 2005 </span> (OUP)

<li>Published/Released:<strong> March 1973</strong></li> (Thomson Gale)


<td width="110" class="productdetailhead"><span id="volumeslabel" class="productdetailhead">Volumes</span></td> <td width="180" class="productdetailbody"><span id="volumes" class="productdetailbody">1</span></td> (ABC-CLIO)


<td class="productdetailhead" width="88"><span id="ISBNLabel">ISBN</span></td> <td class="productdetailbody">1-57607-785-3</td> (ABC-CLIO)

<div class="isbn">0-313-32847-1</div> (Greenwood, homepage)

<div id="pnlIsbn"> <span class="book_options">ISBN:</span> <span id="lblIsbn">0-313-32847-1</span> </div> (Greenwood, product page)

<td width="35%"><font id="title_catalogue_title_font">ISBN Number</font></td> <td width="65%"><font id="text">9812102108</font></td> (Marshall Cavendish)

<span class="isbnNumber">0195162471</span> (OUP)

<li>ISBN: <strong>0-8103-0100-8</strong></li> (Thomson Gale)

Book Edition:

<div class="edition"> Revised and Expanded Edition </div> (OUP)

Added by Tim

RFC vCard Example

9.  References

   [ISO 8601]    ISO 8601:1988 - Data elements and interchange formats -
                 Information interchange - Representation of dates and
                 times - The International Organization for
                 Standardization, June, 1988.

   [ISO 8601 TC] ISO 8601, Technical Corrigendum 1 - Data elements and
                 interchange formats - Information interchange -
                 Representation of dates and times - The International
                 Organization for Standardization, May, 1991.

   [ISO 9070]    ISO 9070, Information Processing - SGML support
                 facilities - Registration Procedures for Public Text
                 Owner Identifiers, April, 1991.

   [CCITT E.163] Recommendation E.163 - Numbering Plan for The
                 International Telephone Service, CCITT Blue Book,
                 Fascicle II.2, pp.  128-134, November, 1988.

   [CCITT X.121] Recommendation X.121 - International Numbering Plan for
                 Public Data Networks, CCITT Blue Book, Fascicle VIII.3,
                 pp. 317-332, November, 1988.

   [CCITT X.520] Recommendation X.520 - The Directory - Selected
                 Attribute Types, November 1988.

   [CCITT X.521] Recommendation X.521 - The Directory - Selected Object
                 Classes, November 1988.

   [MIME-DIR]    Howes, T., Smith, M., and F. Dawson, "A MIME Content-
                 Type for Directory Information", RFC 2425, September

   [RFC 1738]    Berners-Lee, T., Masinter, L., and M. McCahill,
                 "Uniform Resource Locators (URL)", RFC 1738, December

   [RFC 1766]    Alvestrand, H., "Tags for the Identification of
                 Languages", RFC 1766, March 1995.

   [RFC 1872]    Levinson, E., "The MIME Multipart/Related Content-
                 type", RFC 1872, December 1995.

   [RFC 2045]    Freed, N., and N. Borenstein, "Multipurpose Internet
                 Mail Extensions (MIME) - Part One: Format of Internet
                 Message Bodies", RFC 2045, November 1996.

   [RFC 2046]    Freed, N., and N. Borenstein, "Multipurpose Internet
                 Mail Extensions (MIME) - Part Two: Media Types", RFC
                 2046, November 1996.

   [RFC 2047]    Moore, K., "Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions
                 (MIME) - Part Three: Message Header Extensions for
                 Non-ASCII Text", RFC 2047, November 1996.

   [RFC 2048]    Freed, N., Klensin, J., and J. Postel, "Multipurpose
                 Internet Mail Extensions (MIME) - Part Four:
                 Registration Procedures", RFC 2048, January 1997.

   [RFC 2119]    Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
                 Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.

   [RFC 2234]    Crocker, D., and P. Overell, "Augmented BNF for Syntax
                 Specifications: ABNF", RFC 2234, November 1997.

   [UNICODE]     "The Unicode Standard - Version 2.0", The Unicode
                 Consortium, July 1996.

   [VCARD]       Internet Mail Consortium, "vCard - The Electronic
                 Business Card Version 2.1",
       , September 18,

vCard RFC

W3C XHTML Spec Example

<h1><a name="refs" id="refs">E.</a> References</h1>

<p><strong>This appendix is informative.</strong></p>

<dt><a name="ref-css2" id="ref-css2"><strong>[CSS2]</strong></a></dt>

<dd>"<cite><a href="">Cascading Style Sheets, level 2 (CSS2) Specification</a></cite>", B. Bos, H. W. Lie, C. Lilley, I. Jacobs, 12 May 1998.<br />
<a href="">Latest version</a> available at:</dd>

<dt><a name="ref-dom" id="ref-dom"><strong>[DOM]</strong></a></dt>

<dd>"<cite><a href="">Document Object Model (DOM) Level 1 Specification</a></cite>", Lauren Wood <em lang="lt" xml:lang="lt">et al.</em>, 1 October
1998.<br />
<a href="">Latest version</a> available at:</dd>

<dt><a name="ref-dom2" id="ref-dom2"><strong>[DOM2]</strong></a></dt>

<dd>"<cite><a href="">Document Object Model (DOM) Level 2 Core Specification</a></cite>", A. Le Hors, <em lang="lt" xml:lang="lt">et
al.</em>, 13 November 2000.<br />
<a href="">Latest version</a> available at:</dd>

<dt><a name="ref-html4" id="ref-html4"><strong>[HTML]</strong></a></dt>

<dd>"<cite><a href="">HTML 4.01 Specification</a></cite>", D. Raggett, A. Le Hors, I. Jacobs, 24 December 1999.<br />
<a href="">Latest version</a> available at:</dd>

<dt><a name="ref-posix.1" id="ref-posix.1"><strong>[POSIX.1]</strong></a></dt>

<dd>"<cite>ISO/IEC 9945-1:1990 Information Technology - Portable Operating System Interface (POSIX) - Part 1: System Application Program Interface (API) [C Language]</cite>", Institute of Electrical
and Electronics Engineers, Inc, 1990.</dd>

<dt><a id="ref-rfc2045" name="ref-rfc2045"><strong>[RFC2045]</strong></a></dt>

<dd>"<cite><a href="">Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions (MIME) Part One: Format of Internet Message Bodies</a></cite>", N. Freed and N. Borenstein, November
1996. Note that this RFC obsoletes RFC1521, RFC1522, and RFC1590.</dd>

<dt><a name="ref-rfc2046" id="ref-rfc2046"><strong>[RFC2046]</strong></a></dt>

<dd>"<cite><a href="">RFC2046: Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions (MIME) Part Two: Media Types</a></cite>", N. Freed and N. Borenstein, November 1996.<br />
Available at <a href=""></a>. Note that this RFC obsoletes RFC1521, RFC1522, and RFC1590.</dd>

<dt><a name="ref-rfc2119" id="ref-rfc2119"><strong>[RFC2119]</strong></a></dt>

<dd>"<cite><a href="">RFC2119: Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate Requirement Levels</a></cite>", S. Bradner, March 1997.<br />
Available at:</dd>

<dt><a name="ref-rfc2376" id="ref-rfc2376"><strong>[RFC2376]</strong></a></dt>

<dd>"<cite><a href="">RFC2376: XML Media Types</a></cite>", E. Whitehead, M. Murata, July 1998.<br />
This document is obsoleted by [<a href="#ref-rfc3023">RFC3023</a>].<br />
Available at:</dd>

<dt><a name="ref-rfc2396" id="ref-rfc2396"><strong>[RFC2396]</strong></a></dt>

<dd>"<cite><a href="">RFC2396: Uniform Resource Identifiers (URI): Generic Syntax</a></cite>", T. Berners-Lee, R. Fielding, L. Masinter, August 1998.<br />
This document updates RFC1738 and RFC1808.<br />
Available at:</dd>

<dt><a name="ref-rfc2854" id="ref-rfc2854"><strong>[RFC2854]</strong></a></dt>

<dd>"<cite><a href="">RFC2854: The text/html Media Type</a></cite>", D. Conolly, L. Masinter, June 2000.<br />
Available at:</dd>

<dt><a name="ref-rfc3023" id="ref-rfc3023"><strong>[RFC3023]</strong></a></dt>

<dd>"<cite><a href="">RFC3023: XML Media Types</a></cite>", M. Murata, S. St.Laurent, D. Kohn, January 2001.<br />
This document obsoletes [<a href="#ref-rfc2376">RFC2376</a>].<br />
Available at:</dd>

<dt><a id="ref-rfc3066" name="ref-rfc3066"><strong>[RFC3066]</strong></a></dt>

<dd>"<a href="">Tags for the Identification of Languages</a>", H. Alvestrand, January 2001.<br />
Available at:</dd>

<dt><a id="ref-rfc3236" name="ref-rfc3236"><strong>[RFC3236]</strong></a></dt>

<dd>"<a href="">The 'application/xhtml+xml' Media Type</a>", M. Baker, P. Stark, January 2002.<br />
Available at:</dd>

<dt><a id="ref-xhtml-mathml" name="ref-xhtml-mathml"><strong>[XHTML+MathML]</strong></a></dt>

<dd><cite>"<a href="">XHTML plus Math 1.1 <abbr title="Document Type Definition">DTD</abbr></a></cite>", "A.2 MathML as a DTD Module", Mathematical
Markup Language (MathML) Version 2.0. Available at:</dd>

<dt><a id="ref-xhtmlmime" name="ref-xhtmlmime"><strong>[XHTMLMIME]</strong></a></dt>

<dd>"<cite><a href="">XHTML Media Types</a></cite>", Masayasu Ishikawa, 1 August 2002.<br />
<a href="">Latest version</a> available at:</dd>

<dt><a id="ref-xhtmlmod" name="ref-xhtmlmod"><strong>[XHTMLMOD]</strong></a></dt>

<dd>"<cite><a href="">Modularization of XHTML</a></cite>", M. Altheim et al., 10 April 2001.<br />
<a href="">Latest version</a> available at:</dd>

<dt><a name="ref-xml" id="ref-xml"><strong>[XML]</strong></a></dt>

<dd>"<a href="">Extensible Markup Language (XML) 1.0 Specification (Second Edition)</a>", T. Bray, J. Paoli, C. M. Sperberg-McQueen, E. Maler, 6 October
2000.<br />
<a href="">Latest version</a> available at:</dd>

<dt><a name="ref-xmlns" id="ref-xmlns"><strong>[XMLNS]</strong></a></dt>

<dd>"<a href="">Namespaces in XML</a>", T. Bray, D. Hollander, A. Layman, 14 January 1999.<br />
XML namespaces provide a simple method for qualifying names used in XML documents by associating them with namespaces identified by URI.<br />
<a href="">Latest version</a> available at:</dd>

<dt><a name="ref-xmlc14n" id="ref-xmlc14n"><strong>[XMLC14N]</strong></a></dt>

<dd>"<a href="">Canonical XML Version 1.0</a>", J. Boyer, 15 March 2001.<br />
This document describes a method for generating a physical representation, the canonical form, of an XML document.<br />
<a href="">Latest version</a> available at:</dd>

XHTML1.0 Spec references

CiteProc XHTML Output

The XHTML output for CiteProc[1] wasn't designed per se as a microformat, but is probably not a bad place to start. It is desgined to handle a wide range of content. Here is the APA output:

 <div id="bibliography">


   <p id="Brenner2000a" class="bibref">
    <span class="creator">Brenner, N.</span>
    <span class="date"> (<span class="year">2000</span>) </span>
    <span class="title">The Urban Question as a Scale Question: Reflections 
    on Henri Lefebre, Urban Theory and the Politics of Scale, </span>
    <span class="container">
      <span class="title" style="font-style: italic">International Journal of 
        Urban and Regional Research, </span>
      <span class="volume">24</span>
      <span class="issue">(2)</span>
      <span class="locator">, pp. 361–78</span>

   <p id="NW2000-0207" class="bibref">
     <span class="creator">Newsweek</span>
     <span class="date"> 
       (<span class="year">2000a</span>
       <span class="month">, February</span>
       <span class="day"> 7</span>) 
     <span class="title">The Grandmas Pay a Visit, </span>
     <span class="container">
       <span class="volume">135</span>
       <span class="issue">(6)</span>
       <span class="locator">, pp. 45</span>

   <p id="Veer1996a" class="bibref">
     <span class="creator">van der Veer, P.</span>
     <span class="date"><span class="year"> (1996) </span></span>
     <span class="title">Riots and Rituals: The Construction of Violence 
       and Public Space in Hindu Nationalism</span>
     <span class="container">, In Brass, P.<span class="role"> (Ed.)</span>. 
       <span class="title" style="font-style: italic">Riots and Pogroms.</span>
       <span class="origin"><span class="place">New York</span>
       <span class="publisher">: NYU Press</span></span>
       <span class="locator">, pp. 154–76</span>


This does NOT define a format, but instead shows how the format should be displayed. This is something out of the direct scope of this project. CSS styles will handle the look-and-feel of the text, and the author can put it in any order they choose. These links are mentioned for two reasons, one is informative, the other is so we know atleast meet the minimum properties that are used in the styles.