citation-examples

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Citation Examples

The following examples are real world examples of citations found on the web. Please add to this list. The idea is that we get a solid sample of examples and see what commonalities there are amonst them and try to build this microformat so that it can meet 80% of typical uses.

See also:

Contributors

Citation Mark Up in the Wild

Mark up examples from reference publisher's websites (online catalogs), including ABC-CLIO, Greenwood Press, Marshall Cavendish, Oxford University Press (USA) and Thomson Gale. Examples are broken down and organized by element.

(For a cleaner version, see [1])

ABC-CLIO Product detail page

Original Markup

  • title
  • subtitle
  • author
  • image
  • publication date
  • pages
  • volumes
  • specifications (book dimentions 8.5x11, weight, etc)
  • Format - (Hardback, softback)
  • Price
  • ISBN

Greenwood Press home page featured book

Original Markup

  • title
  • subtitle
  • author
  • ISBN
  • Price
  • Description

Greenwood Press Product detail page

Original Markup

  • Title
  • subtitle
  • authors
  • AuthorsNote
  • BookCode (internal code system)
  • ISBN
  • Page
  • Publisher
  • Publication Date
  • Price
  • Availability
  • MediaType
  • categories
  • LC Card Number
  • LCC Class
  • Dewey Class

Marshall Cavendish product page

Original Markup

  • ISBN
  • Series
  • Title
  • publisher
  • Specifications (dimentions/weight)
  • Authors
  • Target Audience
  • Price
  • description

Oxford University Press (USA) homepage

Original Markup

  • title
  • subTitle
  • edition
  • byline
  • ISBN
  • format - hardback
  • publication Date
  • price
  • description
  • related

Oxford University Press (USA) Product page

Original Markup

  • title
  • subTitle
  • edition
  • byline
  • image
  • isbnNumber
  • format - hardback
  • pages
  • publication Date
  • availability
  • price

Thomson Gale product detail page

Original Markup

  • title
  • excerp
  • Volume
  • Publisher
  • description
  • Published date
  • ISBN
  • Product number (internal code system)
  • Pages
  • Shipping Weight
  • price

RFC vCard Example

Original Markup

  • refID (HTML @ID)
  • title
  • publication
  • title
  • Journal
  • Volume
  • Issue
  • page
  • pubdate
  • RFC ID

W3C XHTML Spec Example

Original Markup

  • refID (HTML @ID)
  • URL
  • title
  • subtitle
  • part (1 of X)
  • journal
  • authors
  • pubdate
  • language
  • ISO/IEC ID
  • RFC ID

XHTML1.0 Spec references

CiteProc XHTML Output

Original Markup

The XHTML output for CiteProc[2] wasn't designed per se as a microformat, but is probably not a bad place to start. It is desgined to handle a wide range of content. Here is the APA output:

  • refID (HTML @ID)
  • creator
  • role (to indicate editors and translators)
  • date
  • title
  • volume
  • issue
  • page
  • issue
  • container (a book serves as container for a chapter)
  • type (book, newspaper, proceedings)
  • edition
  • publisher
  • place
  • location (for urls and physical locations)
  • access date (for online items)

ACM Digital Library Search Result Examples

The ACM Digital Library is a heavily used computer science literature database. Original Markup

  • title
  • authors
  • Pages
  • format (PDF)
  • Additional Information
  • abstract
  • index terms
  • journal
  • issue
  • volume
  • pubdate
  • DOI

IEEE IEEExplore Search Results Markup

Original Markup

  • title
  • authors
  • journal
  • issue
  • volume
  • issue
  • pubdate
  • page
  • Digital Object Identifier (DOI)
  • summary

CiteSeer database search results

The CiteSeer database has been another heavily used Computer Science online resource, and it has minimal markup: Original Markup

  • author
  • title
  • journal
  • pages
  • publication date
  • URL

CiteULike.org citation listing

CiteULike Original Markup

  • title
  • author
  • subjects
  • image
  • Volume
  • Number
  • publication date
  • page

Links to services with the following IDs embedded in the link

  • Z3988
  • DOI
  • Pubmed
  • Hubmed

Amazon.com citation info

This is from a detail page on Amazon.com for a book. Original Markup

  • title
  • author
  • series title
  • page

PubMed Medical Journal Example

Original Markup

  • abstract
  • title
  • publisher
  • journal
  • date/time published
  • Review (BOOLEAN YES/NO)
  • PubMedID

BibDesk Default Template

Original Markup

This is a pretty simplistic template for a very general app, but it seems to be OK for most BD users.

  • Title
  • Author
  • Journal
  • Volume
  • Pages
  • Date
  • Url
  • Abstract

Wikipedia

Wikipedia makes extensive use of bibliographic citations, in particular to point readers to further information sources. There are differing formats depending on Wikipedia's language:

English Wikipdia

The kinds of citations used on the site run the full gamut. Here are breakdowns of four categories previously mentioned:

Journal Articles

Example Example Markup

  • author (truncated list)
  • year
  • title
  • journal title
  • journal number
  • page range
  • DOI

Court cases

Example Example Markup

  • title
  • case number
    • note that legal standards for referring to cases include some inscrutable abbreviations that are probably more detailed than just "case number"
  • court name
  • year
  • description/abstract

Conference presentations

Example Example Markup

  • title
  • location
  • date
  • author (implied - the page is about this person)


Historical Sources

Example Example Markup

  • source / location
  • title
  • publisher
  • year
  • description
  • url

German Wikipedia

Self-Citation Example

One example of an article that includes a statement "please cite as" (a self-description):

  • title
  • author
  • periodical (journal) title
  • volume
  • issue
  • pages
  • year

Citation of an Online Resource

At University of Michigan's Center for Research on Learning and Teaching you see citations like this:

Chief Academic Officers of the Big 12 Universities (2000). Big 12 Faculty Fellowship Program. Retrieved December 20, 2000 from the World Wide Wed: http://www.k-state.edu/provost/academic/big12/big12guide.htm.

  • title
  • publication year
  • department/author
  • retrieval date
  • URL

Implied schema

List of all properties

This are a summation of all the properties in the examples, I have tried to logically group them together.

  • title
  • subtitle
  • author
  • editor
  • translator
  • image
  • date (issued, copyrighted, accessed)
  • language
  • description/Summary/abstract
  • excerpt
  • index terms
  • categories (keywords, tags, labels, etc.)

RELATIONS

  • container (publication; periodicals, books, etc.)
  • collection (series and so forth)
  • event (conference, etc.)
  • original (for republished material)

LOCATION INFORMATION

  • pages
  • volume
  • series title
  • Series
  • edition
  • issue
  • publication
  • journal
  • part (1 of X)

PHYSICAL ATTRIBUTES

  • Specifications (dimentions/weight)
  • Format/type (book, newspaper, proceedings)

IDENTIFIERS

  • ISBN
  • LC Card Number
  • LCC Class
  • Dewey Class
  • URL
  • RFC ID
  • ISO/IEC ID
  • DOI
  • PubMedID

PUBLISHER

  • publisher


These are sort of left overs, the are not really about citations, but more about commerce or other things. If they are important we can move them to the above list.

  • refID (HTML @ID)
  • Reviewed (BOOLEAN YES/NO)
  • Availability
  • Price
  • Shipping Weight
  • related
  • Product number (internal system code)
  • BookCode (internal system code)
  • AuthorsNote
  • Additional Information
  • Target Audience

Analysis of Examples

With exception of just a few properties, all of the above appeared in atleast two different examples. The following properties were very common in most the example formats:

  • title
  • subtitle
  • author
  • publication date
  • description
  • pages
  • ISBN
  • publisher

Styles

This does NOT define a format, but instead shows how the format should be displayed. This is something out of the direct scope of this project. CSS styles will handle the look-and-feel of the text, and the author can put it in any order they choose. These links are mentioned for two reasons, one is informative, the other is so we know at least meet the minimum properties that are used in the styles.