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Citation Examples

The following examples are real world examples of citations found on the web. Please add to this list. The idea is that we get a solid sample of examples and see what commonalities there are amonst them and try to build this microformat so that it can meet 80% of typical uses.

See also:



Citation Mark Up in the Wild

Mark up examples from reference publisher's websites (online catalogs), including ABC-CLIO, Greenwood Press, Marshall Cavendish, Oxford University Press (USA) and Thomson Gale. Examples are broken down and organized by element.

(For a cleaner version, see [1])

ABC-CLIO Product detail page

Original Markup

Greenwood Press home page featured book

Original Markup

Greenwood Press Product detail page

Original Markup

Marshall Cavendish product page

Original Markup

Oxford University Press (USA) homepage

Original Markup

Oxford University Press (USA) Product page

Original Markup

Thomson Gale product detail page

Original Markup

RFC vCard Example

Original Markup

W3C XHTML Spec Example

Original Markup

XHTML1.0 Spec references

CiteProc XHTML Output

Original Markup

The XHTML output for CiteProc[2] wasn't designed per se as a microformat, but is probably not a bad place to start. It is desgined to handle a wide range of content. Here is the APA output:

ACM Digital Library Search Result Examples

The ACM Digital Library is a heavily used computer science literature database. Original Markup

IEEE IEEExplore Search Results Markup

Original Markup

CiteSeer database search results

The CiteSeer database has been another heavily used Computer Science online resource, and it has minimal markup: Original Markup citation listing

CiteULike Original Markup

Links to services with the following IDs embedded in the link citation info

This is from a detail page on for a book. Original Markup

PubMed Medical Journal Example

Original Markup


Wikipedia makes extensive use of bibliographic citations, in particular to point readers to further inforamtion sources. The kinds of citations used on the site run the full gamut; from scientific articles published in journals, to legal cases, to conference presentations, to primary historical sources.

Self-Citation Example

One example of an article that includes a statement "please cite as" (a self-description):

Implied schema

List of all properties

This are a summation of all the properties in the examples, I have tried to logically group them together.






These are sort of left overs, the are not really about citations, but more about commerce or other things. If they are important we can move them to the above list.

Analysis of Examples

With exception of just a few properties, all of the above appeared in atleast two different examples. The following properties were very common in most the example formats:


This does NOT define a format, but instead shows how the format should be displayed. This is something out of the direct scope of this project. CSS styles will handle the look-and-feel of the text, and the author can put it in any order they choose. These links are mentioned for two reasons, one is informative, the other is so we know at least meet the minimum properties that are used in the styles.

citation-examples was last modified: Wednesday, December 31st, 1969