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Citation Examples

The following examples are real world examples of citations found on the web. Please add to this list. The idea is that we get a solid sample of examples and see what commonalities there are amonst them and try to build this microformat so that it can meet 80% of typical uses.

See also:



Citation Mark Up in the Wild

Mark up examples from reference publisher's websites (online catalogs), including ABC-CLIO, Greenwood Press, Marshall Cavendish, Oxford University Press (USA) and Thomson Gale. Examples are broken down and organized by element.

(For a cleaner version, see [1]) -- is this link now out of date?--Mike 18:19, 30 Aug 2006 (PDT)

ABC-CLIO Product detail page

ABC-CLIO example ABC-CLIO Original Markup

ACM Digital Library Search Result Examples

The ACM Digital Library is a heavily used computer science literature database.

The ACM Original Markup contained two examples, a journal article and a conference proceedings article.

Journal article:

Conference Proceedings: citation info

This is from a detail page on for a book.

Amazon's Original Markup

CiteSeer database search results

The CiteSeer database has been another heavily used Computer Science online resource, and it has minimal markup:

  1. CiteSeer's Original Markup
  2. CiteSeer's Original Example 2 citation listing


CiteULike's Original Markup

Links to services with the following IDs embedded in the link

CiteProc XHTML Output

Original Markup

The XHTML output for CiteProc[2] wasn't designed per se as a microformat, but is probably not a bad place to start. It is desgined to handle a wide range of content. Here is the APA output:

Google Cache

Original Markup

Greenwood Press featured book

greenwood press home page Original Markup

Greenwood Press product detail page

Product detail page Original Markup

IEEE IEEExplore Search Results Markup

Original Markup

Marshall Cavendish product page

product page Original Markup


Original Example

Oxford University Press (USA) home page

homepage Original Markup

Oxford University Press (USA) product detail page

Product page

Original Markup

Thomson Gale product detail page

Original Markup

RFC vCard Example

Original Markup

University of Virginia

Original Markup

W3C XHTML Spec Example

Original Markup

XHTML1.0 Spec references


Original Markup

PubMed Medical Journal Example

Original Markup

BibDesk Default Template

Original Markup

This is a pretty simplistic template for a very general app, but it seems to be OK for most BD users.


Wikipedia makes extensive use of bibliographic citations, in particular to point readers to further information sources. There are differing formats depending on Wikipedia's language:

English Wikipdia

The kinds of citations used on the site run the full gamut. Here are breakdowns of four categories previously mentioned:


Example Example Markup

Journal Articles

Example Example Markup

Court cases

Example Example Markup

U.S. Law

Example Example Markup

Conference presentations

Example Example Markup

Historical Sources

Example Example Markup

U.S. Patent

Example Example Markup

German Wikipedia

example example markup

Based on Expressing Dublin Core in HTML/XHTML meta and link elements and rfc2731, uses the following Dublin Core terms in meta tags in the HTML HEAD of each paper's page:

In the body of the page, they use the following classes, now no longer DC terms:

Self-Citation Example

One example of an article that includes a statement "please cite as" (a self-description):

Citation of an Online Resource

At University of Michigan's Center for Research on Learning and Teaching you see citations like this:

Chief Academic Officers of the Big 12 Universities (2000). Big 12 Faculty Fellowship Program. Retrieved December 20, 2000 from the World Wide Wed:

OCLC WorldCat Online


example example-makrup


example example-makrup

Implied schema

List of all properties

This are a summation of all the properties in the examples, I have tried to logically group them together.






These are sort of left overs, the are not really about citations, but more about commerce or other things. If they are important we can move them to the above list.

Analysis of Examples

With exception of just a few properties, all of the above appeared in atleast two different examples. The following properties were very common in most the example formats:


This does NOT define a format, but instead shows how the format should be displayed. This is something out of the direct scope of this project. CSS styles will handle the look-and-feel of the text, and the author can put it in any order they choose. These links are mentioned for two reasons, one is informative, the other is so we know at least meet the minimum properties that are used in the styles.

citation-examples was last modified: Wednesday, December 31st, 1969