citation-formats

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Revision as of 19:22, 30 January 2006

Contents

Citation Formats

This page will display several different types of citation format types. The idea is to compare what properties are common amonst all of the formats and which ones should be blended into this microformat.

See also:

Comparison chart

The following chart maps the terms from one implementation to another. This is important because if all the properties are introduced to this microformats, then its possible to map them to a number of different formats. The table currently only uses Dublin Core, MODS, and bibTeX. Each column has all the properties and their equivalent in each format. If there is no corresponding property the cell is grey. At the bottom of the list are the unique terms to each format. Dublin core has basic terms and terms that extend the basic ones. If the property is an extention of a basic term it is in ()'s. MODS uses XML, so any sub-properties are listed in their tree form, property/sub-property.

THIS IS NOT DEFINIATIVE, any errors should be corrected. More formats will be added to the list as they are mapped.

Dublin Core MODS bibTeX Z39.80
Title (alternative) titleInfo/title
titleInfo/PartNum
booktitle
title
chapter
number
pages
volume
series
Analytic Title

Collective or Series Title
Monographic Title
Work Fraction Title
Location of Conference
Main Entry
Name of Conference
Number of Meeting
Other Title
Parallel Title
Title Abbriviation
Title of Conference Proceedings
Translated Title
Uniform Title
Abbriviated Translated Title
Symposium or Session Title
Collective or Series Edition
Video/Film Edition

creator name/namePart author
creator
Author, Primary

Corporate Author, Primary
Abstract Author
Authorship Statement
Acknowledged Supporters
Assignee for Patents
Chairperson of Conference
Director of AV Program
Other Author
Reviewed Book Author
Studio
Sponsor of Conference
Staff/Cast
Symposium Chairperson
Author Address or Affiliation
Author Country
Electronic Address of Author

subject subject/topic keywords needs mapping
Description (abstract | tableOfContents) abstract
note
tableOfContents
abstract
annotation
note
contents
needs mapping
Contributor name editor? Book/Report/Volume Editor

Producer
Translator

Date (available | created | dateAccepted | dateCopyrighted | dateSubmitted | issued | modified | valid) originInfo/dateIssued
originInfo/dateCreated
originInfo/dateCaptured
originInfo/dateOther
month
year
Copyright Year
Date-generic
Date of conference
Date of Publication
Date of Update/Revisou/Issuance of Database Record
Former Date
Entry date for Database Record
Database Update
Year of Publication
Type typeOfResource
genre
@class
type
needs mapping
Format (extent | medium) physicalDescription/internetMediaType
physicalDescription/extent
physicalDescription/form
howpublished needs mapping
identifier (bibliographicCitation) identifier ISBN
ISSN
LCCN
URL
ISBN
Identifier
Report Identfier
ISSN
Source relatedItem needs mapping
language language language
Relation (...) relatedItem/... crossRef needs mapping
Coverage (spacial | temporal) subject/temporal
subject/geographic
subject/hierarchicalGeographic
subject/cartographics
needs mapping
classifications needs mapping
Rights (accessRights | license) accessConditions copyright needs mapping
publisher publisher Publisher Name

Place of Publication
Country of Publication
Generic Address

audience (educationLevel | mediator) targetAudience needs mapping
accualMethod
accualPeriodicaty
accualPolicy
instrcutionalMethod
provenance
rightsHolder
location
extension
recordInfo
address
afflilication
location
edition
institution
journal
key
mrnumber
organization
price
school
size
(the following need to be mapped to the above rows or left here as other)

Database Source
Databse Record Identifier
Database Producer Name
Rights Management
Subfile
Other Source Identifier
Vendor Record Identifier
Database Vendor Name
Column Number
Edition
Frequency of Publication
Internet Location for Document
Supplement/Part/Special number identifer
Issue Identifier
Location in Work
Number of the Chapter
Number in Series
Volume Identifier
Section Indentifier

Dublin Core Metadata

Dublin Core metadata uses a small vocabulary to descibe the data.

From those there are specialised types where are just refinments of the previous, for example:

Guidelines for Encoding Bibliographic Citation Information in Dublin Core Metadata

MODS (Metadata Object Description Schema)

This is a format developed for the Libray of Congress for a bibliographic element set that may be used for a variety of purposes, and particularly for library applications.

http://www.loc.gov/standards/mods/

(the schema is very big, once i devote the proper time to review it, i will post more about the structure -brian)

XMLResume

<!ELEMENT pubs (pub+)>
<!ENTITY % pubElements "(artTitle|bookTitle|author|date|pubDate|publisher|pageNums|url)">
<!ELEMENT pub (para | %pubElements;)*>
<!ATTLIST pub id ID #IMPLIED>
<!ELEMENT artTitle (#PCDATA | link)*>
<!ELEMENT bookTitle (#PCDATA | link)*>
<!ELEMENT author (#PCDATA)>
<!ATTLIST author name IDREF #IMPLIED>
<!ELEMENT pubDate (month?, year)> <!-- Deprecated in 1.4.0. -->
<!ELEMENT publisher (#PCDATA | link | url)*>
<!ELEMENT pageNums (#PCDATA)>

BibTeX

Fields Used by Bibtex

abstract: An abstract of the work.
address: Publisher's address. For major publishing houses, just the city is given. For small publishers, you can help the reader by giving the complete address.
affiliation: The author's affiliation.
annote: An annotation. It is not used by he standard bibliography styles, but may be used by others that produce an annotated bibliography.
author: The name(s) of the author(s).
booktitle:  Title of a book, part of which is being cited. For book entries, use the title field instead.
chapter: A chapter (or section) number.
contents: A Table of Contents.
copyright: Copyright information.
crossref: The database key of the entry being cross-referenced.
edition:  The edition of a book - for example "Second". Notice that it is in capitals.
editor:  Name(s) of editor(s). If there is also an author field, then the editor field gives the editor of the book or collection in which the reference appears.
howpublished: How something strange has been published. The first word should be capitalized.
institution: The sponsoring institution of a technical report.
ISBN: The International Standard Book Number.
ISSN: The International Standard Serial Number. Used to identify a journal.
journal:  A journal name. Abbreviations are provided for many journals.
key:  Used for alphabetizing and creating a label when the author and editor fields are missing. This field should not be confused with the key that appears at the beginning of the reference.
keywords: Key words used for searching or possibly for annotation.
language: The language the document is written in.
LCCN: The Library of Congress Call Number.
location: A location associated with the entry, such as the city in which a conference took place.
month:  The month in which the work was published or, for an unpublished work, in which it was written.
mrnumber: The Mathematical Reviews number.
note: Any additional information that can help the reader. First word should be capitalized.
number:  The number of a journal, magazine, technical report, or of a work in a series. An issue of a journal or magazine is usually identified by its volume and number; the organization that issues a technical report usually gives it a number; and sometimes books are given numbers in a named series.
organization:  The organization that sponsors a conference or publishes a manual.
pages: One or more page numbers or ranges of number, such as 37--42, or 7,53,82--94.
price: The price of the material.
publisher: The publisher's name.
school: The name of the school where a thesis was written.
series: Then name given a series or set of books. When citing an entire book, the title field gives its title and the optional series field gives the name of a series in which the book was published.
size: The physical dimensions of the work.
title: The work's title.
type: The type of technical report - for example, "Research Note".
url: The WWW Universal Resource Locator that points to the item being referenced. Often used for technical reports to point to the FTP site where it resides.
volume: The volume of a journal or multivolume book.
year: The year of publication or, for an unpublished work, the year it was written. It should only consist of numerals, such as 1976.

BibTeX citation Types

A reference can be to any of a variety of types. Following is a list of types. Each one also explains the fields associated with that type. Any fields not listed as required or optional are considered to be ignored.

article: An article from a journal or magazine. Required fields: author, title, journal, year. Optional fields: volume, number, pages, month, note, key.
book: A book with an explicit publisher. Required fields: author or editor, title, publisher, year. Optional fields: volume, series, address, edition, month, note, key.
booklet:  A work that is printed and bound, but without a named publisher or sponsoring institution. Required fields: title. Optional fields: author, howpublished, address, month, year, note, key.
collection: A collection of works. Same as Proceedings.
conference: The same as Inproceedings.
inbook: A part of a book, which may be a chapter and/or arange of pages. Required fields: author or editor, title, chapter and/or pages, publisher, year. Optional fields: volumer, series, address, edition, month, note, key.
incollection: A part of a book with its own title. Required fields: author, title, booktitle, publisher, year. Optional fields: editor, pages, organization, publisher, address, month, note, key.
inproceedings: An article in a conference proceedings. Required fields: author, title, booktitle, year. Optional fields: editor, pages, organization, publisher, address, month, note, key.
manual:  Technical documentation. Required fields: title. Optional fields: author, organization, address, edition, month, year, note.
mastersthesis: A Master's thesis. Required fields: author, title, school, year. Optional fields: address, month, note, key.
misc: Use this type when nothing else fits. Required fields: none. Optional fields: author, title, howpublished, month, year, note, key.
patent: A patent.
phdthesis: A Ph.D. thesis. Required fields: author, title, school, year. Optional fields: address, month, note, key.
proceedings: The proceedings of a conference. Required fields: title, year. Optional fields: editor, publisher, organization, address, month, note, key.
techreport: A report published by a school or other institution, usually numbered within a series. Required fields: author, title, institution, year. Optional fields: type, number, address, month, note, key.
unpublished: A document with an author and title, but not formally published. Required fields: author, title, note. Optional fields: month, year, key.

Examples

@book{kn:gnus,

AUTHOR = "Donald E. Knudson",
TITLE = "1966 World Gnus Almanac",
PUBLISHER = {Permafrost Press},
ADDRESS = {Novosibirsk} }

<div class="book" id="kn:gnus">
  <div class="author">Donald E. Knudson</div>
  <div class="title">1966 World Gnus Almanac</div>
  <div class="publisher">Permafrost Press</div>
  <div class="address">Novosibirsk</div>
</div>


@article{XAi_HSCheng_1994a,

author = "X. Ai and H. S. Cheng",
title = "Influence of moving dent on point {EHL} contacts",
journal = "Tribol. Trans.",
volume = "37",
year = "1994",
pages = "323--335",
}

<div class="article" id="XAi_HSCheng_1994a">
  <div class="author">X. Ai and H. S. Cheng</div>
  <div class="title">Influence of moving dent on point {EHL} contacts</div>
  <div class="journal">Tribol. Trans.</div>
  <div class="volume">37</div>
  <div class="year">1994</div>
  <div class="pages">323--335</div>
</div>

OpenURL

OpenURL aka Z39.88 defines a standard way of bundling citation data in a URL. It is widely deployed in academic libraries around the world to provide access to licensed content via link resolvers such as SFX. The Context Object in Span (COinS) community standard represents one way to embed OpenURLs in XHTML without including a resolver target.


<span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info:ofi/fmt:kev:mtx:journal&rft.issn=1045-4438"></span>

As you can see this isn't very much like semantic XHTML at all. However significant work has gone into defining the set of Key/Encoded Values (KEVs) that can be used in various types of citations: book, dissertation, journal, patent. It would be possible to simply provide a standard XHTML bundling for these keys as a microformat.

Example



<div class="openurl-journal">
   <span class="aulast">Berners-Lee</span>, 
   <span class="aufirst">Tim</a>; Hendler, James; Lassila, Ora.</span>
   "<span class="atitle">The Semantic Web</span>". 
   <span class="jtitle">Scientific American</span>
   <span class="volume">284</span>(<span class="issue">5</span>), pp.
   pp. <span class="pages">34-43</span>. 
   <span class="issn">0036-8733</span>
</div>



Using OpenURL in this way would enable third party applications that could, say grab citation metadata from a blog, and without much work fire it off at your university's or public libraries openurl resolver to see if the article is available via a licensed databases. The benefits have been noted elsewhere.

A short explanation of OpenURL 1.0 (Z39.88)

Z39.80

I'm not sure the best place for a guide to Z39.80 so please add links as you see fit:

http://www.niso.org/standards/resources/drft4rev.html

DocBook

A subset of the DocBook vocabulary is dedicated to representing a bibliography: http://www.docbook.org/tdg/en/html/bibliography.html

<!DOCTYPE bibliography PUBLIC "-//OASIS//DTD DocBook XML V4.1.2//EN"
          "http://www.oasis-open.org/docbook/xml/4.1.2/docbookx.dtd">
<bibliography>
  <title>Languages and Semantics</title>
  <bibliodiv>
    <title>Books</title>
    <biblioentry>
      <title>Course in General Linguistics</title>
      <abbrev>deSaussure59</abbrev>
      <author><firstname>Ferdinand</firstname><surname>de Saussure</surname></author>
      <editor><firstname>Charles</firstname><surname>Bally</surname></editor>
      <editor><firstname>Albert</firstname><surname>Sechehaye</surname></editor>
      <othercredit role="translator"><firstname>Wade</firstname><surname>Baskin</surname></othercredit>
      <copyright>
        <year>1959</year>
        <holder>The Philosophical Library Inc.</holder>
      </copyright>
      <isbn>07-016524-6</isbn>
      <publisher>
        <publishername>McGraw-Hill Book Company</publishername>
      </publisher>  
    </biblioentry>
  </bibliodiv>
</bibliography>

Ann Arbor District Library XML feed

Here's a record in XML format from their project to simplify access to the catalog. More discussion on John Blyberg's blog.


<p:Record>
<callnum>823 Bu</callnum>
<author>Burkart, Gina, 1971-</author>
<fulltitle>A parent's guide to Harry Potter / Gina Burkart</fulltitle>
<title>A parent's guide to Harry Potter </title>
<pubinfo>Downers Grove, Ill. : InterVarsity Press, c2005</pubinfo>
<desc>112 p</desc>
<bibliography>Includes bibliographical references</bibliography>
<contents>
The Harry hype -- More than a story -- The modern fairy tale -- Discussing fantasy with children -- Morals, not magic -- The real issues in Harry Potter -- Dealing with traumatic experiences -- Facing fears -- Battling bullies -- Delving into diversity -- Hiding hurts -- Letting go of anger -- Getting help -- Choosing good over evil -- The power of love -- Facing spiritual battles
</contents>
<isbn>0830832882</isbn>
<price>$11.00</price>
<lang>eng</lang>
<copies>0</copies>
<catdate>08-16-2005</catdate>
<mattype>a</mattype>
<avail>No copies available</avail>
<recordlink xlink:href="http://www.aadl.org/cat/seek/record=1249810"/>
</p:Record>

SimpleDC supported by the zoom toolkit


<dc xmlns="http/www.loc.gov/zing/srw/dcschema/v1.0/">
 <title>Kantor Salomon Sulzer und seine Zeit : eine Dokumentation /</title>
 <creator>Avenary, Hanoch.</creator>
 <creator>Pass, Walter.</creator>
 <creator>Vielmetti, Nikolaus.</creator>
 <creator>Adler, Israel, (1925-)</creator>
 <subject>Sulzer, Salomon, -- 1804-1890.</subject>
 <subject>Jewish composers -- Austria -- Biography.</subject>
 <subject>Cantors, Jewish -- Biography.</subject>
 <date>1985</date>
 <publisher>Sigmaringen : Jan Thorbecke Verlag</publisher>
 <identifier>3799540636</identifier>
 <description>300 p., [12] p. of plates : ill., music, ports. ; 24 cm.</description>
</dc>

this is the output of marc.toSimpleDC()

SRU from the Library of Congress

http://z3950.loc.gov:7090/voyager?version=1.1&operation=searchRetrieve&query=dinosaur&maximumRecords=1&recordSchema=dc


<?xml version="1.0"?>
<zs:searchRetrieveResponse xmlns:zs="http://www.loc.gov/zing/srw/">
  <zs:version>1.1</zs:version>
  <zs:numberOfRecords>1701</zs:numberOfRecords>
  <zs:records>
    <zs:record>
      <zs:recordSchema>info:srw/schema/1/dc-v1.1</zs:recordSchema>
      <zs:recordPacking>xml</zs:recordPacking>
      <zs:recordData>
        <srw_dc:dc xmlns:srw_dc="info:srw/schema/1/dc-schema" 
             xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" 
             xmlns="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" 
             xsi:schemaLocation="info:srw/schema/1/dc-schema http://www.loc.gov/z3950/agency/zing/srw/dc-schema.xsd">
          <title>3-D dinosaur adventure [computer file].</title>
          <creator>Knowledge Adventure, Inc.</creator>
          <type>software, multimedia</type>
          <publisher>Glendale, CA : Knowledge Adventure,</publisher>

          <date>c1995.</date>
          <language>eng</language>
          <description>Employs a dinosaur theme-park setting to introduce users to Triassic, Jurassic, and 
            Cretaceous periods. Features hypertext dinosaur encyclopedia covering 150 million years of 
            paleontology. Includes animated video simulations, three-dimensional dinosaur museum, narration,
            games, activities, and color illustrations.</description>
          <description>Ages 5 to 10.</description>
          <description>System requirements for PC: 486SX/25MHz processor or higher; 8MB RAM; Windows 3.1, 
            3.11, or 95; SVGA 256-color graphics adapter; hard drive with 5MB free space; double-speed CD-ROM
            drive; MPC-compatible sound card; mouse.</description>
          <description>System requirements for Macintosh: 68040 or Power PC processor; 8MB RAM; System 7.0 or
            higher; 256-color graphics capability; thirteen-inch color monitor or larger; hard drive with 4MB
            free space; double-speed CD-ROM drive.</description>
            
          <description>Ages 5 to 10.</description>
          <description>Employs a dinosaur theme-park setting to introduce users to Triassic, Jurassic, and 
            Cretaceous periods. Features hypertext dinosaur encyclopedia covering 150 million years of paleontology.
            Includes animated video simulations, three-dimensional dinosaur museum, narration, games, activities, 
            and color illustrations.</description>
          <subject>Dinosaurs--Juvenile software.</subject>
          <subject>Dinosaurs.</subject>
          <identifier>URN:ISBN:1569972133</identifier>
        </srw_dc:dc>
      </zs:recordData>
      <zs:recordPosition>1</zs:recordPosition>
    </zs:record>
  </zs:records>
</zs:searchRetrieveResponse>


Types and Roles

(Section is informative only as a place to capture various parts of publication citations.)

There are many different types of publications and this information should be captured in the citation. Possible types include:

Question: Certain works have specific types of citations, for example, the Bible--and, I assume, other religious works--have very specific citation formats with different relevant information (chapter/verse) than others, as do the works of Shakespeare. Should these be considered seperate types/roles?

A: I think in terms of types, we should at least note the items (chapter, verse, etc). How they get dealt with is still way up in the air. - Tim White

Likewise, there are several different roles associated with publications -- author, co-author, editor, translator, etc. Should these be captured under a master "role" or treated as individual elements?

A: Good question. I think there is an important distinction, but whether we follow a design pattern of "role-*" (or more likely "author-*) or some other pattern hasn't been discussed yet. - Tim

citation-formats was last modified: Wednesday, December 31st, 1969

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