Difference between revisions of "citation-formats"

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<entry-title> Citation Formats </entry-title>
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This page will display several different types of citation format types. The idea is to compare what properties are common amonst all of the formats and which ones should be blended into this microformat.
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== styles ==
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Citation styles, though perhaps present in proxy through aggregate real world [[citation-examples]], are also good source of explicit citation schemas, and thus implicit formats.
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Subsections from [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Citation#Citation_styles Wikipedia: Citation Styles] and focus on documenting citation styles to ''online'' resources first per the [[principle]] of solving a [[simpler]] problem first.
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Note also Yale College Center's comparison/overview/methodology:
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* [http://writing.yalecollege.yale.edu/why-are-there-different-citation-styles Why Are There Different Citation Styles?] and how to specifically cite:
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** [http://writing.yalecollege.yale.edu/citing-internet-sources Internet Sources]
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** [http://writing.yalecollege.yale.edu/private-websites Private Websites] ("private website" is their terminology for what are indieweb sites)
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** [http://writing.yalecollege.yale.edu/blogs Blogs]
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=== APA ===
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* [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/APA_style Wikipedia: APA style]
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==== APA site or profile ====
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* APA FAQ: [http://www.apastyle.org/learn/faqs/cite-website.aspx How do you cite an entire website (but not a specific document on that site)?]
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** parenthetical, e.g.:
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<blockquote><nowiki>Kidspsych is a wonderful interactive website for children (http://www.kidspsych.org).</nowiki></blockquote>
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* APA Style Blog: [http://blog.apastyle.org/apastyle/2009/10/how-to-cite-twitter-and-facebook-part-i.html How to Cite Twitter and Facebook, Part I: General] (2009-10-23)
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** parenthetical in-text, e.g.:
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<blockquote><nowiki>President Obama uses Twitter (http://www.twitter.com/barackobama) and
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Facebook (http://www.facebook.com/barackobama)</nowiki></blockquote>
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==== APA permalink ====
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===== APA note permalink =====
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* APA Style Blog: [http://blog.apastyle.org/apastyle/2009/10/how-to-cite-twitter-and-facebook-part-ii.html How to Cite Twitter and Facebook, Part II: Reference List Entries and In-Text Citations]
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** outdented Twitter alias / full Facebook name, parenthesized date, tweet/update/note text "<nowiki>[Twitter post]</nowiki>/<nowiki>[Facebook update]</nowiki>". "Retrieved from" permalink. e.g.  
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<blockquote><pre><nowiki>BarackObama. (2009a, July 15). Launched American Graduation Initiative
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to help additional 5 mill. Americans graduate college by 2020:
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http://bit.ly/gcTX7 [Twitter post]. Retrieved from
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http://twitter.com/BarackObama/status/2651151366</nowiki></pre></blockquote>
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<blockquote><pre><nowiki>Barack Obama. (2009b, October 9). Humbled.  
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http://my.barackobama.com/page/community/post/obamaforamerica/gGM45m
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[Facebook update]. Retrieved from http://www.facebook.com/posted.php?
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id=6815841748&share_id=154954250775&comments=1#s154954250775</nowiki></pre></blockquote>
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===== APA article permalink =====
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* APA Style Blog: [http://blog.apastyle.org/apastyle/2010/11/how-to-cite-something-you-found-on-a-website-in-apa-style.html How to Cite Something You Found on a Website in APA Style] (2010-11-18)
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** author, date, title, and source, e.g. <blockquote><nowiki>Author, A. (date). Title of document [Format description]. Retrieved from http://URL</nowiki></blockquote><blockquote><nowiki>Freakonomics. (2010, October 29). E-ZPass is a life-saver (literally) [Blog post]. Retrieved from http://freakonomics.blogs.nytimes.com/2010/10/29/e-zpass-is-a-life-saver-literally/</nowiki></blockquote>
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** no author is identified in this online news article: <blockquote><nowiki>All 33 Chile miners freed in flawless rescue. (2010, October 13). Retrieved from http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/39625809/ns/world_news-americas/</nowiki></blockquote>
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===== APA undated page =====
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** no date is identified in this webpage: <blockquote><nowiki>The College of William and Mary. (n.d.). College mission statement. Retrieved from http://www.wm.edu/about/administration/provost/mission/index.php</nowiki></blockquote>
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=== MLA ===
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* http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/MLA_style
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* http://www.mla.org/style_faq
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==== MLA note permalink ====
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* MLA Style FAQ: [http://www.mla.org/style/style_faq/mlastyle_cite_a_tweet How do I cite a tweet?]
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** name (username), note text, datetime, "Tweet". In more detail: author’s real name (user name if known and different), entire text of the tweet in quotation marks without changing the capitalization, date and time of the message and the medium of publication "Tweet". If only the user name is known, give it alone. e.g. <blockquote style="padding-left:2em; padding-right:2em; text-indent:-2em"><nowiki>Athar, Sohaib (ReallyVirtual). “Helicopter hovering above Abbottabad at 1AM (is a rare event).” 1 May 2011, 3:58 p.m. Tweet.</nowiki></blockquote> <blockquote>"The date and time of a message on Twitter reflect the reader’s time zone. Readers in different time zones see different times and, possibly, dates on the same tweet. The date and time that were in effect for the writer of the tweet when it was transmitted are normally not known."</blockquote>
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** MLA is incorrect about "normally not known". The date and time of tweet creation *are* known and are in the markup in ISOdate form. Thus we should presume they would choose to use that information rather than that of the reader's time zone (which makes no sense, reader of the tweet? reader of the citation of the tweet? unpredictable). - [[User:Tantek|Tantek]] 20:23, 8 May 2012 (UTC)
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=== The Chicago Manual of Style ===
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* http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Chicago_Manual_of_Style
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* http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/home.html
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* http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools_citationguide.html
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Examples from CMOS citation guide:
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==== TCMOS dated page ====
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<blockquote style="padding-left:2em; padding-right:2em; text-indent:-2em"><nowiki>Google. 2009. “Google Privacy Policy.” Last modified March 11. http://www.google.com/intl/en/privacypolicy.html.</nowiki></blockquote>
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==== TCMOS undated page ====
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<blockquote style="padding-left:2em; padding-right:2em; text-indent:-2em"><nowiki>McDonald’s Corporation. 2008. “McDonald’s Happy Meal Toy Safety Facts.” Accessed July 19. http://www.mcdonalds.com/corp/about/factsheets.html.</nowiki></blockquote>
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==== TCMOS permalink ====
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<blockquote style="padding-left:2em; padding-right:2em; text-indent:-2em"><nowiki>Posner, Richard. 2010. “Double Exports in Five Years?” The Becker-Posner Blog, February 21. http://uchicagolaw.typepad.com/beckerposner/2010/02/double-exports-in-five-years-posner.html.</nowiki></blockquote>
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(Posner 2010)
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=== Bluebook ===
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* http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bluebook
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Per [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bluebook#Criticism criticism] and law-specific nature, considering this lower priority than other styles.
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=== ALWD Citation Manual ===
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http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ALWD_Citation_Manual
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=== ASA style ===
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http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ASA_style
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=== Harvard referencing ===
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AKA Parenthetical referencing.
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http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Harvard_referencing
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=== Vancouver system ===
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http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vancouver_system
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== formats ==
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Here is a list of previous/existing explicit citation formats.  
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The sub-sections probably needs sorting (alphabetical?) to make it easier to browse since it is quite large.[[User:Tantek|Tantek]] 19:26, 2 April 2009 (UTC)
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=== Comparison chart ===
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The following chart maps the terms from one implementation to another. This is important because if all the properties are introduced to this microformat, then it's possible to map them to a number of different formats. The table currently only uses Dublin Core, MODS, and bibTeX. Each column has all the properties and their equivalent in each format. If there is no corresponding property, the cell is grey. At the bottom of the list are the unique terms to each format. Dublin Core has basic terms and terms that extend the basic ones. If the property is an extension of a basic term it is in ()'s. MODS uses XML, so any sub-properties are listed in their tree form, property/sub-property.
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THIS IS NOT DEFINITIVE, any errors should be corrected. More formats will be added to the list as they are mapped.
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<table border="1">
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<tr>
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<th>Dublin Core</th>
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<th>MODS</th>
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<th>bibTeX</th>
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<th>Z39.80</th>
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</tr>
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<tr>
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<td>Title (alternative)</td>
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<td>titleInfo/title<br/>titleInfo/PartNum</td>
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<td>booktitle<br/>title<br/>chapter<br/>number<br/>pages<br/>volume<br/>series</td>
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<td>Analytic Title<br/>
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Collective or Series Title<br/>
 
Monographic Title<br/>
 
Work Fraction Title<br/>
 
Location of Conference<br/>
 
Main Entry<br/>
 
Name of Conference<br/>
 
Number of Meeting<br/>
 
Other Title<br/>
 
Parallel Title<br/>
 
Title Abbriviation<br/>
 
Title of Conference Proceedings<br/>
 
Translated Title<br/>
 
Uniform Title<br/>
 
Abbriviated Translated Title<br/>
 
Symposium or Session Title<br/>
 
Collective or Series Edition<br/>
 
Video/Film Edition<br/>
 
</td>
 
</tr>
 
<tr>
 
<td>creator</td>
 
<td>name/namePart</td>
 
<td>author<br/>creator</td>
 
<td>Author, Primary<br/>
 
Corporate Author, Primary<br/>
 
Abstract Author<br/>
 
Authorship Statement<br/>
 
Acknowledged Supporters<br/>
 
Assignee for Patents<br/>
 
Chairperson of Conference<br/>
 
Director of AV Program<br/>
 
Other Author<br/>
 
Reviewed Book Author<br/>
 
Studio<br/>
 
Sponsor of Conference<br/>
 
Staff/Cast<br/>
 
Symposium Chairperson<br/>
 
Author Address or Affiliation<br/>
 
Author Country<br/>
 
Electronic Address of Author<br/>
 
</td>
 
</tr>
 
<tr>
 
<td>subject</td>
 
<td>subject/topic</td>
 
<td>keywords</td>
 
<td>needs mapping</td>
 
</tr>
 
<tr>
 
<td>Description (abstract | tableOfContents)</td>
 
<td>abstract<br/>note<br/>tableOfContents</td>
 
<td>abstract<br/>annotation<br/>note<br/>contents</td>
 
<td>needs mapping</td>
 
</tr>
 
<tr>
 
<td>Contributor</td>
 
<td>name</td>
 
<td>editor?</td>
 
<td>Book/Report/Volume Editor<br/>
 
Producer<br/>
 
Translator<br/>
 
</td>
 
</tr>
 
<tr>
 
<td>Date (available | created | dateAccepted | dateCopyrighted | dateSubmitted | issued | modified | valid)</td>
 
<td>originInfo/dateIssued<br/>originInfo/dateCreated<br/>originInfo/dateCaptured<br/>originInfo/dateOther</td>
 
<td>month<br/>year</td>
 
<td>Copyright Year<br/>Date-generic<br/>Date of conference<br/>Date of Publication<br/>Date of Update/Revisou/Issuance of Database Record<br/>Former Date<br/>Entry date for Database Record<br/>Database Update<br/>Year of Publication</td>
 
</tr>
 
<tr>
 
<td>Type</td>
 
<td>typeOfResource<br/>genre</td>
 
<td>@class<br/>type</td>
 
<td>needs mapping</td>
 
</tr>
 
<tr>
 
<td>Format (extent | medium)</td>
 
<td>physicalDescription/internetMediaType<br/>physicalDescription/extent<br/>physicalDescription/form</td>
 
<td>howpublished</td>
 
<td>needs mapping</td>
 
</tr>
 
<tr>
 
<td>identifier (bibliographicCitation)</td>
 
<td>identifier</td>
 
<td>ISBN<br/>ISSN<br/>LCCN<br/>URL</td>
 
<td>ISBN<br/>Identifier<br/>Report Identfier<br/>ISSN</td>
 
</tr>
 
<tr>
 
<td>Source</td>
 
<td>relatedItem</td>
 
<td bgcolor="#cccccc"></td>
 
<td>needs mapping</td>
 
</tr>
 
<tr>
 
<td>language</td>
 
<td>language</td>
 
<td>language</td>
 
<td bgcolor="#cccccc"></td>
 
</tr>
 
<tr>
 
<td>Relation (...)</td>
 
<td>relatedItem/...</td>
 
<td>crossRef</td>
 
<td>needs mapping</td>
 
</tr>
 
<tr>
 
<td>Coverage (spacial | temporal)</td>
 
<td>subject/temporal<br/>subject/geographic<br/>subject/hierarchicalGeographic<br/>subject/cartographics</td>
 
<td></td>
 
<td>needs mapping</td>
 
</tr>
 
<tr>
 
<td bgcolor="#cccccc"></td>
 
<td>classifications</td>
 
<td bgcolor="#cccccc"></td>
 
<td>needs mapping</td>
 
</tr>
 
<tr>
 
<td>Rights (accessRights | license)</td>
 
<td>accessConditions</td>
 
<td>copyright</td>
 
<td>needs mapping</td>
 
</tr>
 
<tr>
 
<td>publisher</td>
 
<td bgcolor="#cccccc"></td>
 
<td>publisher</td>
 
<td>Publisher Name<br/>
 
Place of Publication<br/>
 
Country of Publication<br/>
 
Generic Address<br/>
 
</td>
 
</tr>
 
<tr>
 
<td>audience (educationLevel | mediator)</td>
 
<td>targetAudience</td>
 
<td bgcolor="#cccccc"></td>
 
<td>needs mapping</td>
 
</tr>
 
<tr>
 
<td bgcolor="#999999">accualMethod<br/>accualPeriodicaty<br/>accualPolicy<br/>instrcutionalMethod<br/>provenance<br/>rightsHolder</td>
 
<td bgcolor="#999999">location<br/>extension<br/>recordInfo</td>
 
<td bgcolor="#999999">address<br/>afflilication<br/>location<br/>edition<br/>institution<br/>journal<br/>key<br/>mrnumber<br/>organization<br/>price<br/>school<br/>size</td>
 
<td bgcolor="#999999">(the following need to be mapped to the above rows or left here as other)<br/><br/>
 
Database Source<br/>
 
Databse Record Identifier<br/>
 
Database Producer Name<br/>
 
Rights Management<br/>
 
Subfile<br/>
 
Other Source Identifier<br/>
 
Vendor Record Identifier<br/>
 
Database Vendor Name<br/>
 
Column Number<br/>
 
Edition<br/>
 
Frequency of Publication<br/>
 
Internet Location for Document<br/>
 
Supplement/Part/Sp*cial number identifer<br/>
 
Issue Identifier<br/>
 
Location in Work<br/>
 
Number of the Chapter<br/>
 
Number in Series<br/>
 
Volume Identifier<br/>
 
Section Indentifier<br/>
 
</td>
 
</tr>
 
</table>
 
 
 
=== Dublin Core Metadata ===
 
[http://dublincore.org/ Dublin Core] metadata uses a small vocabulary to describe the data.
 
* contributor
 
* coverage
 
* creator
 
* date
 
* description
 
* format
 
* identifier
 
* language
 
* publisher
 
* relation
 
* rights
 
* source
 
* subject
 
* title
 
* type
 
 
 
From those there are specialised types which are just refinements of the previous, for example:
 
 
 
* abstract refines description
 
* accessRights refines rights
 
 
 
[http://dublincore.org/documents/dc-citation-guidelines/ Guidelines for Encoding Bibliographic Citation Information in Dublin Core Metadata]
 
 
 
=== MODS (Metadata Object Description Schema) ===
 
This is a format developed for the Library of Congress for a bibliographic element set that may be used for a variety of purposes, and particularly for library applications.  
 
 
 
[http://www.loc.gov/standards/mods/ http://www.loc.gov/standards/mods/]
 
 
 
(the schema is very big, once i devote the proper time to review it, i will post more about the structure -brian)
 
 
 
=== NCBI-NLM Journal Publishing DTD ===
 
 
 
[http://dtd.nlm.nih.gov/publishing/tag-library/2.1/n-fv30.html http://dtd.nlm.nih.gov/publishing/tag-library/2.1/n-fv30.html]
 
 
 
The [http://dtd.nlm.nih.gov/publishing/tag-library/ NLM Journal Publishing DTD] defines the schema used for publishing journal articles as XML. The <pre><citation></pre> element can be placed with paragraphs or within a <pre><ref-list></pre> element at the end of the article.
 
 
 
"Although the DTD does not enforce it, a citation to a journal article should be tagged with as many as possible of the following, so that PubMed Central, CrossRef, or other matching service can make the citation into a live link:
 
 
 
<table border="1">
 
<tr><td>source</td><td>The title of a journal, book, conference proceedings, etc. that is the source of the cited material. (Note: In PubMed Central processing, this is typically the MEDLINE abbreviation of the journal name.)</td></tr>
 
<tr><td>article-title</td><td>Title of the article</td></tr>
 
<tr><td>volume</td><td>Volume of the journal</td></tr>
 
<tr><td>issue</td><td>Issue of the journal</td></tr>
 
<tr><td>fpage</td><td>Page number on which the article starts</td></tr>
 
<tr><td>name</td><td>Name of an author or editor</td></tr>
 
<tr><td>year</td><td>Year of publication</td></tr>
 
<tr><td>month</td><td>Month of publication (if present)</td></tr>
 
<tr><td>day</td><td>Date of publication (if present)</td></tr>
 
</table>
 
 
 
The other elements (described [http://dtd.nlm.nih.gov/publishing/tag-library/2.1/n-fv30.html here]) may be tagged if desired. Use the <pre><source></pre> element for titles of books, conference proceedings, etc."
 
 
 
=== XMLResume ===
 
<pre>
 
<!ELEMENT pubs (pub+)>
 
<!ENTITY % pubElements "(artTitle|bookTitle|author|date|pubDate|publisher|pageNums|url)">
 
<!ELEMENT pub (para | %pubElements;)*>
 
<!ATTLIST pub id ID #IMPLIED>
 
<!ELEMENT artTitle (#PCDATA | link)*>
 
<!ELEMENT bookTitle (#PCDATA | link)*>
 
<!ELEMENT author (#PCDATA)>
 
<!ATTLIST author name IDREF #IMPLIED>
 
<!ELEMENT pubDate (month?, year)> <!-- Deprecated in 1.4.0. -->
 
<!ELEMENT publisher (#PCDATA | link | url)*>
 
<!ELEMENT pageNums (#PCDATA)>
 
</pre>
 
 
 
* author
 
* publication date
 
* publisher
 
* pages
 
* title (article/book)
 
* url
 
 
 
=== BibTeX ===
 
==== Fields Used by Bibtex ====
 
 
 
<table border="1" width="100%">
 
    <tr>
 
        <td><strong>abstract:</strong></td>
 
        <td>An abstract of the work.</td>
 
    </tr>
 
    <tr>
 
        <td><b>address:</b></td>
 
        <td>Publisher's address. For major publishing houses,
 
just the city is given. For small publishers, you can help the reader by giving the complete address.</td>
 
    </tr>
 
    <tr>
 
        <td><strong>affiliation:</strong></td>
 
        <td>The author's affiliation.</td>
 
    </tr>
 
    <tr>
 
        <td><b>annote:</b></td>
 
        <td>An annotation. It is not used by he standard bibliography styles, but may be used by others that produce an annotated bibliography.</td>
 
    </tr>
 
    <tr>
 
        <td><b>author:</b></td>
 
        <td>The name(s) of the author(s).</td>
 
    </tr>
 
    <tr>
 
        <td><b>booktitle:&nbsp;</b></td>
 
        <td>Title of a book, part of which is being cited. For book entries, use the <strong>title</strong> field instead.</td>
 
    </tr>
 
    <tr>
 
        <td><b>chapter:</b></td>
 
        <td>A chapter (or section) number.</td>
 
    </tr>
 
    <tr>
 
        <td><strong>contents:</strong></td>
 
        <td>A Table of Contents.</td>
 
    </tr>
 
    <tr>
 
        <td><strong>copyright:</strong></td>
 
        <td>Copyright information.</td>
 
    </tr>
 
    <tr>
 
        <td><strong>crossref:</strong></td>
 
        <td>The database key of the entry being cross-referenced.</td>
 
    </tr>
 
    <tr>
 
        <td><b>edition:&nbsp;</b></td>
 
        <td>The edition of a book - for example
 
        &quot;Second&quot;. Notice that it is in capitals.</td>
 
    </tr>
 
    <tr>
 
        <td><b>editor:&nbsp;</b></td>
 
        <td>Name(s) of editor(s). If there is also an author field, then the editor field gives the editor of the book or collection in which the reference appears.</td>
 
    </tr>
 
    <tr>
 
        <td><b>howpublished:</b></td>
 
        <td>How something strange has been published. The first word should be capitalized.</td>
 
    </tr>
 
    <tr>
 
        <td><b>institution:</b></td>
 
        <td>The sponsoring institution of a technical report.</td>
 
    </tr>
 
    <tr>
 
        <td><strong>ISBN:</strong></td>
 
        <td>The International Standard Book Number.</td>
 
    </tr>
 
    <tr>
 
        <td><strong>ISSN:</strong></td>
 
        <td>The International Standard Serial Number. Used to
 
        identify a journal.</td>
 
    </tr>
 
    <tr>
 
        <td><b>journal:&nbsp;</b></td>
 
        <td>A journal name. Abbreviations are provided for many journals.</td>
 
    </tr>
 
    <tr>
 
        <td><b>key:&nbsp;</b></td>
 
        <td>Used for alphabetizing and creating a label when the author and editor fields are missing. This field should not be confused with the key that appears at the beginning of the reference.</td>
 
    </tr>
 
    <tr>
 
        <td><strong>keywords:</strong></td>
 
        <td>Key words used for searching or possibly for annotation.</td>
 
    </tr>
 
    <tr>
 
        <td><strong>language:</strong></td>
 
        <td>The language the document is written in.</td>
 
    </tr>
 
    <tr>
 
        <td><strong>LCCN:</strong></td>
 
        <td>The Library of Congress Call Number.</td>
 
    </tr>
 
    <tr>
 
        <td><strong>location:</strong></td>
 
        <td>A location associated with the entry, such as the city in which a conference took place.</td>
 
    </tr>
 
    <tr>
 
        <td><b>month:&nbsp;</b></td>
 
        <td>The month in which the work was published or, for an unpublished work, in which it was written.</td>
 
    </tr>
 
    <tr>
 
        <td><strong>mrnumber:</strong></td>
 
        <td>The <em>Mathematical Reviews</em> number.</td>
 
    </tr>
 
    <tr>
 
        <td><b>note:</b></td>
 
        <td>Any additional information that can help the reader. First word should be capitalized.</td>
 
    </tr>
 
    <tr>
 
        <td><b>number:&nbsp;</b></td>
 
        <td>The number of a journal, magazine, technical report, or of a work in a series. An issue of a journal or magazine is usually identified by its volume and number; the organization that issues a technical report usually gives it a number; and sometimes books are given numbers in a named series.</td>
 
    </tr>
 
    <tr>
 
        <td><b>organization:&nbsp;</b></td>
 
        <td>The organization that sponsors a conference or publishes a manual.</td>
 
    </tr>
 
    <tr>
 
        <td><b>pages:</b></td>
 
        <td>One or more page numbers or ranges of number, such as 37--42, or 7,53,82--94.</td>
 
    </tr>
 
    <tr>
 
        <td><strong>price:</strong></td>
 
        <td>The price of the material.</td>
 
    </tr>
 
    <tr>
 
        <td><b>publisher:</b></td>
 
        <td>The publisher's name.</td>
 
    </tr>
 
    <tr>
 
        <td><b>school:</b></td>
 
        <td>The name of the school where a thesis was written.</td>
 
    </tr>
 
    <tr>
 
        <td><b>series:</b></td>
 
        <td>Then name given a series or set of books. When citing an entire book, the title field gives its title and the optional series field gives the name of a series in which the book was published.</td>
 
    </tr>
 
    <tr>
 
        <td><strong>size:</strong></td>
 
        <td>The physical dimensions of the work.</td>
 
    </tr>
 
    <tr>
 
        <td><b>title:</b></td>
 
        <td>The work's title.</td>
 
    </tr>
 
    <tr>
 
        <td><b>type:</b></td>
 
        <td>The type of technical report - for example,
 
        &quot;Research Note&quot;.</td>
 
    </tr>
 
    <tr>
 
        <td><strong>url:</strong></td>
 
        <td>The WWW Universal Resource Locator that points to the item being referenced. Often used for technical reports to point to the FTP site where it resides.</td>
 
    </tr>
 
    <tr>
 
        <td><b>volume:</b></td>
 
        <td>The volume of a journal or multivolume book.</td>
 
    </tr>
 
    <tr>
 
        <td><b>year:</b></td>
 
        <td>The year of publication or, for an unpublished work, the year it was written. It should only consist of numerals, such as 1976.</td>
 
    </tr>
 
</table>
 
 
 
==== BibTeX citation Types ====
 
A reference can be to any of a variety of types. Following is a list of types. Each one also explains the fields associated with that type. Any fields not listed as required or optional are considered to be ignored.
 
<table border="1" width="100%">
 
    <tr>
 
        <td><b>article:</b></td>
 
        <td>An article from a journal or magazine. Required fields: author, title, journal, year. Optional fields: volume, number, pages, month, note, key.</td>
 
    </tr>
 
    <tr>
 
        <td><b>book:</b></td>
 
        <td>A book with an explicit publisher. Required fields: author or editor, title, publisher, year. Optional fields: volume, series, address, edition, month, note, key.</td>
 
    </tr>
 
    <tr>
 
        <td><b>booklet:&nbsp;</b></td>
 
        <td>A work that is printed and bound, but without a named publisher or sponsoring institution. Required fields: title. Optional fields: author, howpublished, address, month, year, note, key.</td>
 
    </tr>
 
    <tr>
 
        <td><strong>collection:</strong></td>
 
        <td>A collection of works. Same as Proceedings.</td>
 
    </tr>
 
    <tr>
 
        <td><b>conference:</b></td>
 
        <td>The same as Inproceedings.</td>
 
    </tr>
 
    <tr>
 
        <td><b>inbook:</b></td>
 
        <td>A part of a book, which may be a chapter and/or arange of pages. Required fields: author or editor, title, chapter and/or pages, publisher, year. Optional fields: volumer, series, address, edition, month, note, key.</td>
 
    </tr>
 
    <tr>
 
        <td><b>incollection:</b></td>
 
        <td>A part of a book with its own title. Required fields: author, title, booktitle, publisher, year. Optional fields: editor, pages, organization, publisher, address, month, note, key.</td>
 
    </tr>
 
    <tr>
 
        <td><b>inproceedings:</b></td>
 
        <td>An article in a conference proceedings. Required fields: author, title, booktitle, year. Optional fields: editor, pages, organization, publisher, address, month, note, key.</td>
 
    </tr>
 
    <tr>
 
        <td><b>manual:&nbsp;</b></td>
 
        <td>Technical documentation. Required fields: title. Optional fields: author, organization, address, edition, month, year, note.</td>
 
    </tr>
 
    <tr>
 
        <td><b>mastersthesis:</b></td>
 
        <td>A Master's thesis. Required fields: author, title, school, year. Optional fields: address, month, note, key.</td>
 
    </tr>
 
    <tr>
 
        <td><b>misc:</b></td>
 
        <td>Use this type when nothing else fits. Required fields: none. Optional fields: author, title, howpublished, month, year, note, key.</td>
 
    </tr>
 
    <tr>
 
        <td><strong>patent:</strong></td>
 
        <td>A patent.</td>
 
    </tr>
 
    <tr>
 
        <td><b>phdthesis:</b></td>
 
        <td>A Ph.D. thesis. Required fields: author, title, school, year. Optional fields: address, month, note, key.</td>
 
    </tr>
 
    <tr>
 
        <td><b>proceedings:</b></td>
 
        <td>The proceedings of a conference. Required fields: title, year. Optional fields: editor, publisher, organization, address, month, note, key.</td>
 
    </tr>
 
    <tr>
 
        <td><b>techreport:</b></td>
 
        <td>A report published by a school or other institution, usually numbered within a series. Required fields: author, title, institution, year. Optional fields: type, number, address, month, note, key.</td>
 
    </tr>
 
    <tr>
 
        <td><b>unpublished:</b></td>
 
        <td>A document with an author and title, but not formally published. Required fields: author, title, note. Optional fields: month, year, key.</td>
 
    </tr>
 
</table>
 
 
 
===== Examples =====
 
<pre><nowiki>
 
@book{kn:gnus,
 
 
 
AUTHOR = "Donald E. Knudson",
 
TITLE = "1966 World Gnus Almanac",
 
PUBLISHER = {Permafrost Press},
 
ADDRESS = {Novosibirsk} }
 
 
 
<div class="book" id="kn:gnus">
 
  <div class="author">Donald E. Knudson</div>
 
  <div class="title">1966 World Gnus Almanac</div>
 
  <div class="publisher">Permafrost Press</div>
 
  <div class="address">Novosibirsk</div>
 
</div>
 
 
 
 
 
@article{XAi_HSCheng_1994a,
 
 
 
author = "X. Ai and H. S. Cheng",
 
title = "Influence of moving dent on point {EHL} contacts",
 
journal = "Tribol. Trans.",
 
volume = "37",
 
year = "1994",
 
pages = "323--335",
 
}
 
 
 
<div class="article" id="XAi_HSCheng_1994a">
 
  <div class="author">X. Ai and H. S. Cheng</div>
 
  <div class="title">Influence of moving dent on point {EHL} contacts</div>
 
  <div class="journal">Tribol. Trans.</div>
 
  <div class="volume">37</div>
 
  <div class="year">1994</div>
 
  <div class="pages">323--335</div>
 
</div>
 
</nowiki></pre>
 
 
 
====Bib-enabled Applications====
 
 
 
Reference-management applications that support the bib format. <strong>This is an incomplete list</strong>.
 
 
 
=====Desktop Applications=====
 
* [http://www.endnote.com EndNote] (Large market share) (but not really BiBTeX oriented, importation macros are old and you must first use Jabref and export to Endnote formats)
 
* [http://bibdesk.sourceforge.net/ BibDesk]
 
* [http://www.mackichan.com/index.html?bibdb/default.htm~mainFrame BibDB]
 
* [http://sourceforge.net/projects/bib-it/ Bib-it]
 
* [http://jabref.sourceforge.net Jabref] Probably the most useful application because of its facility to search Pubmed (and also to export in many other formats).
 
* Large list of other apps at [http://dmoz.org/Computers/Software/Typesetting/TeX/BibTeX/ dmoz] and [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/BibTeX#Software Wikipedia]
 
 
 
=====Web Applications=====
 
* [http://www.refworks.com RefWorks] (Large market share)
 
* [http://www.citeulike.org/ CiteULike]
 
* [http://citeseer.ist.psu.edu/ CiteSeer]
 
* [http://www.bibsonomy.org/ BibSonomy]
 
* [http://www.connotea.org Connotea]
 
* [http://www.2ndminute.org:8080/amatex Amatex - converts Amazon to Bib format]
 
* Many others can be found at [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/BibTeX#External_links Wikipedia]
 
 
 
=====Academic Databases=====
 
* [http://academic.live.com/ Windows Live Academic Search]
 
* [http://portal.acm.org/dl.cfm?dl=ACM ACM Digital Library]
 
* [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/bv.fcgi PubMed] via TexMed
 
 
 
=== RIS ===
 
RIS is similar to BibTeX and is handled by most desktop and web-based bibliography management software.
 
 
 
The specification and field types/tags are described at [http://www.refman.com/support/risformat_intro.asp http://www.refman.com/support/risformat_intro.asp]
 
 
 
In particular, see [http://www.refman.com/support/risformat_reftypes.asp the list of different reference types].
 
 
 
A sample item in RIS format:
 
<pre>
 
TY  - JOUR
 
A1  - Baldwin,S.A.
 
A1  - Fugaccia,I.
 
A1  - Brown,D.R.
 
A1  - Brown,L.V.
 
A1  - Scheff,S.W.
 
T1  - Blood-brain barrier breach following
 
cortical contusion in the rat
 
JO  - J.Neurosurg.
 
Y1  - 1996
 
VL  - 85
 
SP  - 476
 
EP  - 481
 
RP  - Not In File
 
KW  - cortical contusion
 
KW  - blood-brain barrier
 
KW  - horseradish peroxidase
 
KW  - head trauma
 
KW  - hippocampus
 
KW  - rat
 
ER  -
 
</pre>
 
 
 
[http://www-static.cc.gatech.edu/classes/RWL/Projects/citation/Applet/OnlineHelp/refer_doc.html Refer] is a similar, smaller bibliographic format.
 
 
 
* author
 
* title
 
* type
 
* Identifier
 
* notes/abstract
 
* reprint status
 
* keyword
 
* volume
 
* issue
 
* pages
 
* year
 
* periodical name (where published)
 
* publisher
 
** publisher city
 
** publisher address
 
* related links
 
* link to PDF
 
* availablity
 
 
 
=== OpenURL ===
 
OpenURL aka [http://www.niso.org/standards/standard_detail.cfm?std_id=783 Z39.88] defines a standard way of bundling citation data in a URL. It is widely deployed in academic libraries around the world to provide access to licensed content via link resolvers such as [http://www.exlibrisgroup.com/sfx_openurl.htm SFX]. The Context Object in Span ([http://ocoins.info/ COinS]) community standard represents one way to embed OpenURLs in XHTML without including a resolver target. OpenURL also provides an XML encoding.
 
 
 
Example (from a book review written using the Structured Blogging plugin):
 
 
 
<pre><nowiki>
 
<p><b>ISBN</b>: <span class='Z3988'
 
title='ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;amp;rft_val_fmt=info:ofi/fmt:kev:mtx:book&amp;amp;rft.isbn=0679426612'>
 
0679426612</span></p>
 
</nowiki></pre>
 
 
 
Another example, a journal this time:
 
<pre>
 
<nowiki>
 
<span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info:ofi/fmt:kev:mtx:journal&amp;rft.issn=1045-4438"></span>
 
</nowiki>
 
</pre>
 
 
 
As you can see this isn't very much like semantic XHTML at all. However significant work has gone into defining the set of Key/Encoded Values (KEVs) that can be used in various [http://alcme.oclc.org/openurl/servlet/OAIHandler?verb=ListRecords&metadataPrefix=oai_dc&set=Core:Metadata+Formats types] of citations: [http://www.openurl.info/registry/docs/mtx/info:ofi/fmt:kev:mtx:book book], [http://www.openurl.info/registry/docs/mtx/info:ofi/fmt:kev:mtx:dissertation dissertation], [http://www.openurl.info/registry/docs/mtx/info:ofi/fmt:kev:mtx:journal journal], [http://www.openurl.info/registry/docs/mtx/info:ofi/fmt:kev:mtx:patent patent]. It would be possible to simply provide a standard XHTML bundling for these keys as a microformat.
 
 
 
==== Example ====
 
<pre>
 
<nowiki>
 
 
 
<div class="openurl-journal">
 
  <span class="aulast">Berners-Lee</span>,
 
  <span class="aufirst">Tim</a>; Hendler, James; Lassila, Ora.</span>
 
  "<span class="atitle">The Semantic Web</span>".  
 
  <span class="jtitle">Scientific American</span>
 
  <span class="volume">284</span>(<span class="issue">5</span>), pp.
 
  pp. <span class="pages">34-43</span>.  
 
  <span class="issn">0036-8733</span>
 
</div>
 
 
 
</nowiki>
 
</pre>
 
 
 
Using OpenURL in this way would enable third party applications that could, say grab citation metadata from a blog, and without much work fire it off at your university's or public libraries openurl resolver to see if the article is available via a licensed databases. The benefits [http://www.infotoday.com/newsbreaks/nb050801-1.shtml have] [http://www.ariadne.ac.uk/issue43/chudnov/ been] [http://www.wallandbinkley.com/quaedam/?p=30 noted] [http://hublog.hubmed.org/archives/001163.html elsewhere].
 
 
 
==== The OpenURL Briefly Explained ====
 
An OpenURL consists of two independent parts:  the ContextObject (or the bibliographic metadata surrounding a citation) and the location of resolver to parse the metadata and present contextual services based on said metadata. The problem is that the term "OpenURL" is also used as a catch-all for all of the independent parts and how they work. This is mainly because it's a catchier term than "Z39.88", which is the [http://www.niso.org/standards/standard_detail.cfm?std_id=783 NISO standard all this is based upon].
 
 
 
The most common representation of the OpenURL ContextObject is seen as arguments in a URL string (which is referred to as "San Antonio Profile 1" -- more commonly SAP1 -- and is represented in Key Encoded Values -- KEVs). This "representation" is independent of the ContextObject (from here on known as CO) itself and is only intended to permit the CO to be transmitted via an HTTP GET request.
 
 
 
There is also SAP2, which is an XML representation of the CO (see:  [http://alcme.oclc.org/openurl/servlet/OAIHandler?verb=GetRecord&metadataPrefix=oai_dc&identifier=info:ofi/fmt:xml:xsd:ctx here]  for more information) and is a much more human readable format.  This still falls outside the scope of microformats, but makes the point that encoding has nothing to do with the CO itself.  They are just agreed upon means of conveying the CO to enable machines act upon them consistently.
 
 
 
The ContextObject could be conveyed just as easily in XHTML using attributes, as long as the terms follow the vocabulary defined in the OpenURL framework. The important thing to focus on here is the ContextObject -- the address of the link resolver ''is'' institution-specific and should be handled by a user's (or machine's) activating agent.
 
 
 
However, the link resolver is still a very important component to this whole process. Getting users "appropriate copy" is a very real (and very difficult) problem that libraries are trying to solve.  Link resolvers are a pretty efficient means of overcoming this hurdle, so it would make sense to mark up bibiographic citations in a way that link resolvers can easily parse.
 
 
 
=== Z39.80 ===
 
I'm not sure the best place for a guide to Z39.80 so please add links as you see fit:
 
 
 
[http://www.niso.org/standards/resources/drft4rev.html http://www.niso.org/standards/resources/drft4rev.html]
 
 
 
=== DocBook ===
 
A subset of the DocBook vocabulary is dedicated to representing a bibliography: http://www.docbook.org/tdg/en/html/bibliography.html
 
 
 
<pre><nowiki>
 
<!DOCTYPE bibliography PUBLIC "-//OASIS//DTD DocBook XML V4.1.2//EN"
 
          "http://www.oasis-open.org/docbook/xml/4.1.2/docbookx.dtd">
 
<bibliography>
 
  <title>Languages and Semantics</title>
 
  <bibliodiv>
 
    <title>Books</title>
 
    <biblioentry>
 
      <title>Course in General Linguistics</title>
 
      <abbrev>deSaussure59</abbrev>
 
      <author><firstname>Ferdinand</firstname><surname>de Saussure</surname></author>
 
      <editor><firstname>Charles</firstname><surname>Bally</surname></editor>
 
      <editor><firstname>Albert</firstname><surname>Sechehaye</surname></editor>
 
      <othercredit role="translator"><firstname>Wade</firstname><surname>Baskin</surname></othercredit>
 
      <copyright>
 
        <year>1959</year>
 
        <holder>The Philosophical Library Inc.</holder>
 
      </copyright>
 
      <isbn>07-016524-6</isbn>
 
      <publisher>
 
        <publishername>McGraw-Hill Book Company</publishername>
 
      </publisher> 
 
    </biblioentry>
 
  </bibliodiv>
 
</bibliography>
 
</nowiki></pre>
 
 
 
 
 
* publisher
 
* copyright
 
* identifier (ISBN)
 
* title
 
* author/editor/other credit/
 
* type (book)
 
 
 
=== Ann Arbor District Library XML feed ===
 
Here's a record in XML format from their project to simplify
 
access to the catalog. More discussion on [http://www.blyberg.net John Blyberg's blog].
 
 
 
<pre>
 
<nowiki>
 
<p:Record>
 
  <callnum>823 Bu</callnum>
 
  <author>Burkart, Gina, 1971-</author>
 
  <fulltitle>A parent's guide to Harry Potter / Gina Burkart</fulltitle>
 
  <title>A parent's guide to Harry Potter </title>
 
  <pubinfo>Downers Grove, Ill. : InterVarsity Press, c2005</pubinfo>
 
  <desc>112 p</desc>
 
  <bibliography>Includes bibliographical references</bibliography>
 
  <contents>
 
    The Harry hype -- More than a story -- The modern fairy tale -- Discussing fantasy with children --
 
    Morals, not magic -- The real issues in Harry Potter -- Dealing with traumatic experiences -- Facing
 
    fears -- Battling bullies -- Delving into diversity -- Hiding hurts -- Letting go of anger -- Getting
 
    help -- Choosing good over evil -- The power of love -- Facing spiritual battles
 
  </contents>
 
  <isbn>0830832882</isbn>
 
  <price>$11.00</price>
 
  <lang>eng</lang>
 
  <copies>0</copies>
 
  <catdate>08-16-2005</catdate>
 
  <mattype>a</mattype>
 
  <avail>No copies available</avail>
 
  <recordlink xlink:href="http://www.aadl.org/cat/seek/record=1249810"/>
 
</p:Record>
 
</nowiki>
 
</pre>
 
 
 
* url
 
* availablity
 
* identifier (ISBN/call number)
 
* author
 
* title
 
* publisher
 
* pages
 
* description/contents
 
 
 
=== SimpleDC supported by the zoom toolkit ===
 
<pre>
 
<nowiki>
 
<dc xmlns="http/www.loc.gov/zing/srw/dcschema/v1.0/">
 
<title>Kantor Salomon Sulzer und seine Zeit : eine Dokumentation /</title>
 
<creator>Avenary, Hanoch.</creator>
 
<creator>Pass, Walter.</creator>
 
<creator>Vielmetti, Nikolaus.</creator>
 
<creator>Adler, Israel, (1925-)</creator>
 
<subject>Sulzer, Salomon, -- 1804-1890.</subject>
 
<subject>Jewish composers -- Austria -- Biography.</subject>
 
<subject>Cantors, Jewish -- Biography.</subject>
 
<date>1985</date>
 
<publisher>Sigmaringen : Jan Thorbecke Verlag</publisher>
 
<identifier>3799540636</identifier>
 
<description>300 p., [12] p. of plates : ill., music, ports. ; 24 cm.</description>
 
</dc>
 
</nowiki>
 
</pre>
 
 
 
this is the output of marc.toSimpleDC()
 
 
 
* title
 
* creator (author)
 
* subjects
 
* date
 
* publisher
 
* identifier
 
* description
 
 
 
(NOTE: this schema is from the example, not the source schema)
 
 
 
=== SRU from the Library of Congress ===
 
http://z3950.loc.gov:7090/voyager?version=1.1&operation=searchRetrieve&query=dinosaur&maximumRecords=1&recordSchema=dc
 
 
 
<pre>
 
<nowiki>
 
<?xml version="1.0"?>
 
<zs:searchRetrieveResponse xmlns:zs="http://www.loc.gov/zing/srw/">
 
  <zs:version>1.1</zs:version>
 
  <zs:numberOfRecords>1701</zs:numberOfRecords>
 
  <zs:records>
 
    <zs:record>
 
      <zs:recordSchema>info:srw/schema/1/dc-v1.1</zs:recordSchema>
 
      <zs:recordPacking>xml</zs:recordPacking>
 
      <zs:recordData>
 
        <srw_dc:dc xmlns:srw_dc="info:srw/schema/1/dc-schema"
 
            xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
 
            xmlns="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/"
 
            xsi:schemaLocation="info:srw/schema/1/dc-schema http://www.loc.gov/z3950/agency/zing/srw/dc-schema.xsd">
 
          <title>3-D dinosaur adventure [computer file].</title>
 
          <creator>Knowledge Adventure, Inc.</creator>
 
          <type>software, multimedia</type>
 
          <publisher>Glendale, CA : Knowledge Adventure,</publisher>
 
 
 
          <date>c1995.</date>
 
          <language>eng</language>
 
          <description>Employs a dinosaur theme-park setting to introduce users to Triassic, Jurassic, and
 
            Cretaceous periods. Features hypertext dinosaur encyclopedia covering 150 million years of
 
            paleontology. Includes animated video simulations, three-dimensional dinosaur museum, narration,
 
            games, activities, and color illustrations.</description>
 
          <description>Ages 5 to 10.</description>
 
          <description>System requirements for PC: 486SX/25MHz processor or higher; 8MB RAM; Windows 3.1,
 
            3.11, or 95; SVGA 256-color graphics adapter; hard drive with 5MB free space; double-speed CD-ROM
 
            drive; MPC-compatible sound card; mouse.</description>
 
          <description>System requirements for Macintosh: 68040 or Power PC processor; 8MB RAM; System 7.0 or
 
            higher; 256-color graphics capability; thirteen-inch color monitor or larger; hard drive with 4MB
 
            free space; double-speed CD-ROM drive.</description>
 
           
 
          <description>Ages 5 to 10.</description>
 
          <description>Employs a dinosaur theme-park setting to introduce users to Triassic, Jurassic, and
 
            Cretaceous periods. Features hypertext dinosaur encyclopedia covering 150 million years of paleontology.
 
            Includes animated video simulations, three-dimensional dinosaur museum, narration, games, activities,
 
            and color illustrations.</description>
 
          <subject>Dinosaurs--Juvenile software.</subject>
 
          <subject>Dinosaurs.</subject>
 
          <identifier>URN:ISBN:1569972133</identifier>
 
        </srw_dc:dc>
 
      </zs:recordData>
 
      <zs:recordPosition>1</zs:recordPosition>
 
    </zs:record>
 
  </zs:records>
 
</zs:searchRetrieveResponse>
 
 
 
</nowiki>
 
</pre>
 
 
 
NOTE: this is just Dublin Core data in a sp*cial LOC envelope
 
 
 
:LOC also delivers [http://www.loc.gov/standards/marcxml/ MARCXML], and [http://www.loc.gov/standards/mods/ MODS], see http://z3950.loc.gov:7090/voyager?version=1.1&operation=explain -- [[User:JakobVoss|JakobVoss]] 05:37, 26 Jul 2007 (PDT)
 
 
 
=== University of Bath reference type ===
 
<pre>
 
<nowiki>
 
<reference>
 
<authors>
 
<author>
 
<forename>E</forename>
 
<forename>M</forename>
 
<surname>Phillips</surname>
 
</author>
 
<author>
 
<forename>D</forename>
 
<forename>S</forename>
 
<surname>Pugh</surname>
 
</author>
 
</authors>
 
<date>1994</date>
 
<entity>
 
<book title="How to get a PhD:  A handbook for students and their supervisors">
 
<location>
 
<placeofpublication>Buckinghamshire</placeofpublication>
 
<publisher>Open University</publisher>
 
</location>
 
</book>
 
</entity>
 
</reference>
 
 
 
<reference>
 
<authors>
 
<author>
 
<forename>Michael</forename>
 
<surname>Fumento</surname>
 
</author>
 
</authors>
 
<date>1996</date>
 
<entity>
 
<website pagetitle="Radon&apos;s Real Threat is to the EPA"
 
uri="http://www.consumeralert.org/fumento/radon1.htm"/>
 
</entity>
 
<frdescription>an article by a prolific newspaper columnist in the USA -
 
quotes empirical scientific research showing no provable link between radon in homes and elevated
 
cases of lung cancer</frdescription>
 
</reference>
 
</nowiki>
 
</pre>
 
[http://www.bath.ac.uk/schemas/screenshots/referencetype.png Schema extract]
 
 
 
* author
 
* date
 
* url
 
* description
 
* type (book/journal/conference)
 
* title
 
* artile
 
* volume
 
* issue
 
* chapter
 
* pages
 
* publisher
 
** publisher data (address, city, ...)
 
 
 
=== Biblio RDF Class Schema ===
 
Regading the issue of types notes above, the [http://vocab.org/biblio/schema biblio schema] provides a comprehensive set of classes to describe citation metadata. It might prove useful as a guide for a micro-format. The primary classes are Agent, Reference, Collection, and Event. An "Article", then, would be a subclass of "Part", which in turn is a subclass of Reference. Likewise, a "Journal" is a subclass of a "Periodical," which in turn is a subclass of "Collection." An article would typically be linked to a journal through a dcterms:isPartOf relation.
 
 
 
=== ISBN Uniform Resource Names ===
 
[http://www.faqs.org/rfcs/rfc3187.html RFC3187] defines an ISBN namespace for Uniform Resource Names (URNs).
 
 
 
Example:
 
 
 
URN:ISBN:0-395-36341-1
 
 
 
I'm not sure if any browser uses this data, but it might have an application in citations describing registered materials with an ISBN.
 
 
 
There is also a URN namespace for ISSN (International Standard Serial Number), which identifies serials/periodicals e.g. [http://alistapart.com A List Apart].  It is defined in [http://www.faqs.org/rfcs/rfc3044.html RFC3044].  Additional URN namespaces are listed at http://www.iana.org/assignments/urn-namespaces.
 
 
 
=== ISBD ===
 
Oh, already a year ago! I was just trying to explain Microformats and its relevance for libraries ([http://jakoblog.de/2007/07/26/von-isbd-zum-web-20-mit-mikroformaten/ here (in German)]. You should have a look at the [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/International_Standard_Bibliographic_Description International Standard Bibliographic Description] (ISBD). These rules specify how a bibliographic should be displayed in a library catalouge. This format could be used as basis for hCitation because millions of records are availble in ISBD or variants in library catalouges all over the world.  
 
 
 
Here is an example:
 
 
 
<pre>
 
Title: Harry Potter and the deathly hallows / Joanne K. Rowling. - [Children’s ed.], 1. ed. - London : Bloomsbury, 2007
 
ISBN: 0-7475-9105-9 - 978-0-7475-9105-4 (Children’s edition)
 
</pre>
 
 
 
This could be broken into "semantic peaces":
 
 
 
<pre>
 
<div class='hCitation'>
 
  Titel:
 
  <span class='title'>Harry Potter and the deathly hallows</span> /
 
  <span class='n'>
 
    </span><span class='given-name'>Joanne K.</span>
 
    <span class='family-name'>Rowling</span>
 
  </div>. -
 
  [<span class='edition'>Children's ed.</span>], <span class='edition-number'>1.</span> ed. -
 
  <span class='location'>London</span> : <span class='publisher-name'>Bloomsbury</span>,
 
  <span class='publication-year'>2007</span>
 
</div>
 
<div>
 
  ISBN:
 
  <span class='ISBN'>0-7475-9105-9</span> -
 
  <span class='ISBN'>978-0-7475-9105-4</span>
 
  (<span class='edition'>Children's edition</span>)
 
</div>
 
</pre>
 
 
 
The advantage of ISBD is that it is very elaborated and covers many field and types of publications and sp*cial cases. Of course you need to simplifiy parts of it for the microformat. I'd prefer a bottom up design with the current mass of real-world records in todays libraries instead of top-down by thinking of an "ideal record" or limited playing databases. -- [[User:JakobVoss|JakobVoss]] 05:34, 26 Jul 2007 (PDT)
 
 
 
=== OpenDocument ===
 
The OpenDocument Format also includes parts for citation and bibliography. See also the [http://bibliographic.openoffice.org/ OpenOffice Bibliographic project]. -- [[User:JakobVoss|JakobVoss]] 11:55, 19 Jul 2006 (PDT)
 
 
 
=== Wikimedia foundation projects ===
 
* http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:Citation_templates
 
** 'The use of Citation templates is not required by WP:CITE and is neither encouraged nor discouraged by any other Wikipedia citation guidelines.' (ibid)
 
* [http://meta.wikimedia.org/wiki/WikiTextrose WikiTextrose]
 
* [http://meta.wikimedia.org/wiki/Wikicat Wikicat]
 
* [http://meta.wikimedia.org/wiki/Wikicite Wikicite]
 
 
 
=== Structurally-Based Citation Formatting ===
 
Bruce D’Arcus has drafted a partial proposal with a few examples, and a schema for the parts of a citation:
 
 
 
http://www.users.muohio.edu/darcusb/misc/citations-spec.html
 
 
 
* container
 
* part numbers
 
* creator
 
* title
 
* publisher
 
* origin place
 
* year
 
* genre
 
* volume
 
* number
 
* date
 
* location
 
* medium
 
 
 
== additional sources for citation formats ==
 
* There are more then 1300 citation ''styles'' in EndNote 9.
 
* Libraries have developed formats and rules for publications since more than 100 years. There are millions of records in library catalougues. You should '''at least''' be familiar with AACR and FRBR. There '''already are''' effords to create a new "microformat" called ''Resource Description and Access'' (RDA) [http://www.collectionscanada.ca/jsc/rdaprospectus.html]. Why don't you try to work with the professionals instead of amateurishly trying to reinvent the wheel and create yet another incompatible format? -- [[User:JakobVoss|JakobVoss]] 01:39, 5 Jun 2006 (PDT)
 
** I agree that the people involved in developing this microformat (including me) ought to be aware of these efforts (in particular FRBR), but I also think your argument is hopelessly naive and pretentious. The professionals you refer to are in fact library professionals, with their own bizarre traditios and unique information needs. Those are different than the professional scholars for whom citations are critical (me), or to the professional web developers who might want to implement these formats. What I do think is important is for us to understand the different design traditions, and their trade-offs, rather than to blindly create a microformat based on one of them -- Bruce (author of citeproc [http://xbiblio.sourceforge.net/citeproc] and csl [http://xbiblio.sourceforge.net/csl]).
 
 
 
Nice to meet you, Bruce! Maybe I'm naive but it still think that there is a way to combine the best of both worlds: scholars and library professionals. Both have developed bizarre traditions and it would be a pitty to create a new bizarre microformat that is not based on both of them. Thanks to your links to xbiblio. I a stumbled upon it a while ago but have to look at it deeper. -- [[User:JakobVoss|JakobVoss]] 11:48, 19 Jul 2006 (PDT)
 
 
 
== common properties across formats ==
 
This is the start of the short list of common properties across documented formats. Once this is finished, there will be a union of Implied schemas between EXAMPLES and IMPLEMENTATIONS and we will see what that looks like. (This currently only covers a few of the formats listed, some documented formats still need to be explored)
 
 
 
* creator (author, editor, translator, contributor) - this can be handled with hCard, but will need an additional property to refine what "creator" means
 
* publisher (this can also be handled with hCard)
 
* subject/topics/keywords/categories/genre (there is a rel="tag" microformat)
 
* Description (abstract, note, tableOfContents)
 
* typeOfResource/format
 
 
 
common location information
 
* volume
 
* issue
 
* page
 
* edition
 
 
 
Date Fields
 
* Date Published (some formats have YEAR/MONTH sperately)
 
* Date Accessed (see [http://www.apastyle.org/elecsource.html here] for discussion from APA style guide.)
 
 
 
Again, I'll emphasize: "date published" is problematic. If one needs specificity, then better to have the following list of date classes: date (the generic), issued (braoder than published), copyright (often not the same as issuance date), accessed. -- bruce
 
 
 
Other fields
 
* Copyright/usage
 
* audience
 
 
 
* identifier (ISBN, ISSN, id, internal only, other)
 
* language (this can be handled by the xml:lang attribute native to HTML)
 
 
 
=== Types and Roles ===
 
(Section is informative only as a place to capture various parts of publication citations.)
 
 
 
There are many different types of publications and this information should be captured in the citation. Possible types include:
 
* Novel/fiction (specify type -- literature, SF, romance, etc.?)
 
* Non-fiction
 
* Poem
 
* Play
 
* Magazine
 
* Reference (separate out encyclopedia, dictionary, almanac, etc.?)
 
* Journal
 
* Article within a journal
 
* Chapter within a book
 
* Dissertation
 
* Web Site
 
* Page within a web site
 
* Music Recording
 
* Music Score
 
* Video Recording
 
* Interview
 
* Physical object (Statue, Painting, etc.)
 
* ??
 
 
 
Question:
 
Certain works have specific types of citations, for example, the Bible--and, I assume, other religious works--have very specific citation formats with different relevant information (chapter/verse) than others, as do the works of Shakespeare. Should these be considered separate types/roles?
 
 
 
A: I think in terms of types, we should at least note the items (chapter, verse, etc). How they get dealt with is still way up in the air. - [[User:Tim White|Tim White]]
 
 
 
Likewise, there are several different roles associated with publications -- author, co-author, editor, translator, etc. Should these be captured under a master "role" or treated as individual elements?
 
 
 
A: Good question. I think there is an important distinction, but whether we follow a design pattern of "role-*" (or more likely "author-*) or some other pattern hasn't been discussed yet. - Tim
 
 
 
 
 
== Concerns not addressed by existing formats ==
 
There are some aspects '''NOT adequately''' covered by existing formats. I have addressed this issue on the OpenOffice.org wiki page, too. [see http://wiki.services.openoffice.org/wiki/Bibliographic_Database for an extending discussion, the paragraph on ''Reference Types'']
 
 
 
These issues pertain mainly to '''Errata''', '''Comments and Authors Reply''' and '''Article Retractions'''.
 
* a bidirectional link could be necessary to implement these features (original article <=> eratum, reply, retraction letter)
 
* '''IMPORTANT: Errata'''
 
** Erata: one or more Corrections might be posted in various issues of the journal
 
** this is usually cited as: Orininal Article Citation Data (Correction available in ''Journal, Issue Nr, Year, Pages'') (repeat for more than one correction)
 
** it is possibly never cited alone
 
** there should be a link to the original article, while the original article should contain a link to this ''Errata''
 
* '''IMPORTANT: Commentary and Author Reply'''
 
** similar to Errata, there might be one or more Comments and Author Replys; this should be stored, too
 
** however, it is usually not included in the original citation
 
** it might be used however in a citation, but I do not know exaclty how to cite it optimally (original article should be provided as well)
 
* '''IMPORTANT: Article Retraction'''
 
** an article may be retracted because of plagiarism or some other flaw
 
** this should not be used any further in the research
 
** however, it might be used e.g. for an article on plagiarism or flawed research
 
** there should be therefore one field storing this information, too, and a link to:
 
** the published withdrawal letter (which explains why the article was retracted)
 
 
 
* this issue may need a time-controlled event
 
* '''IMPORTANT: electronic publishing ahead of print (EPUB)'''
 
** more and more articles are initially posted online, before the published article gets actually printed
 
** How should this be used/cited?
 
** Is this changed, after the print version becomes available?
 
 
 
 
 
==See also==
 
{{citation-related-pages}}
 

Revision as of 03:29, 7 April 2013

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