microformats2 parsing specification

(Difference between revisions)

Jump to: navigation, search
(parse a hyperlink element for rel microformats: part 2 microformats2-parsing-brainstorming#more_information_for_rel-based_formats rel parsing algorithm additions)
Current revision (18:02, 20 October 2016) (view source)
m (Add code markup to make the rendered doc more readable)
 
(42 intermediate revisions not shown.)
Line 1: Line 1:
<entry-title>microformats2 parsing specification</entry-title>
<entry-title>microformats2 parsing specification</entry-title>
 +
<dfn style="font-style:normal;font-weight:bold">[[microformats2]]</dfn> is a simple, open format for marking up data in HTML. The microformats2 parsing specification describes how to [[#implementations|implement]] a microformats2 parser, independent of any specific vocabularies.
-
<span class="h-card vcard"><span class="p-name fn">[[User:Tantek|Tantek Çelik]]</span> (<span class="p-role role">Editor</span>)</span>
+
;<span id="status">Status</span>
-
----
+
:This is a '''Living Specification''' with several interoperable [[#implementations|implementations]]. This specification is stable, subject to editorial changes only for improving clarity of existing meaning. While substantive changes are unexpected, it is a living specification subject to substantive change by issues and errata filed in response to implementation experience, requiring consensus among participating implementers (since 2015-01-21) as part of an explicit [[#change_control|change control]] process. There are currently no draft or proposed new features in this specification, and if any were to be added, they would be explicitly labeled as such.<br/>Note: This specification is only marked as a "Draft Specification" because of pending edits from [[microformats2-parsing-issues|resolved issues before 2016-06-20]]. Once those edits have been completed, the link to <nowiki>[[Category:Draft Specifications]]</nowiki> at the bottom of this document should be changed to <nowiki>[[Category:Specifications]]</nowiki>.
-
<dfn style="font-style:normal;font-weight:bold">[[microformats2]]</dfn> is a simple, open format for marking up data in HTML. The microformats2 parsing specification describes how to [[#implementations|implement]] a microformats2 parser.
+
;Participate
-
 
+
:[https://github.com/microformats/microformats2-parsing/issues Open Issues]
-
One of the goals of [[microformats2]] is to greatly simplify parsing of microformats, in particular, by making parsing independent of any one vocabulary. This specification documents the microformats2 parsing algorithm for doing so.
+
:[[microformats2-parsing-issues|Resolved issues before 2016-06-20]]
-
 
+
:[[IRC]]: [irc://irc.freenode.net/microformats #microformats on Freenode]
-
{{cc0-owfa-license}}
+
<div class="p-author h-card vcard">
-
 
+
;<span class="p-role role">Editor</span>
 +
:<span class="p-name fn">[[User:Tantek|Tantek Çelik]]</span>
 +
</div>
 +
;License
 +
: {{cc0-owfa-license}}
 +
__TOC__
== algorithm ==
== algorithm ==
=== parse a document for microformats ===
=== parse a document for microformats ===
Line 21: Line 27:
</source>
</source>
* parse the root element for class microformats, adding to the JSON items array accordingly
* parse the root element for class microformats, adding to the JSON items array accordingly
-
* parse all hyperlink (<code>&lt;link> &lt;a></code>) elements for rel microformats, adding to the JSON rels & rel-urls hashes accordingly
+
* parse all hyperlink (<code>&lt;a> &lt;area> &lt;link></code>) elements for rel microformats, adding to the JSON rels & rel-urls hashes accordingly
* return the resulting JSON
* return the resulting JSON
Parsers may simultaneously parse the document for both class and rel microformats (e.g. in a single tree traversal).
Parsers may simultaneously parse the document for both class and rel microformats (e.g. in a single tree traversal).
Line 27: Line 33:
=== parse an element for class microformats ===
=== parse an element for class microformats ===
To parse an element for class microformats:
To parse an element for class microformats:
-
* parse element class for root class name(s) "h-*" and backcompat root classes
+
* parse element class for root class name(s) "h-*" and if none, backcompat root classes
-
** if not found, parse child elements for microformats (depth first, doc order)
+
** if none found, parse child elements for microformats (depth first, doc order)
** else if found, start parsing a new microformat
** else if found, start parsing a new microformat
 +
*** keep track of whether the root class name(s) was from backcompat
*** create a new { } structure with:
*** create a new { } structure with:
**** <code>type: <nowiki>[array of microformat "h-*" type(s) on the element]</nowiki>,</code>
**** <code>type: <nowiki>[array of microformat "h-*" type(s) on the element]</nowiki>,</code>
**** <code>properties: { } </code> - to be filled in when that element itself is parsed for microformats properties
**** <code>properties: { } </code> - to be filled in when that element itself is parsed for microformats properties
-
**** if that element is an <code>&lt;area&gt;</code> element, also add:
 
-
***** <code>shape:</code> from <code>area[shape]</code> if any
 
-
***** <code>coords:</code> from <code>area[coords]</code> if any
 
-
**** end if
 
*** parse child elements (document order) by:
*** parse child elements (document order) by:
-
**** parse a child element class for property class name(s) "p-*,u-*,dt-*,e-*" respectively as detailed below
+
**** if parsing a backcompat root, parse child element class name(s) for backcompat properties
 +
**** else parse a child element class for property class name(s) "p-*,u-*,dt-*,e-*"
**** if such class(es) are found, it is a property element
**** if such class(es) are found, it is a property element
***** add properties found to current microformat's <code>properties: { } </code> structure
***** add properties found to current microformat's <code>properties: { } </code> structure
**** parse a child element for microformats (recurse)
**** parse a child element for microformats (recurse)
***** if that child element itself has a microformat ("h-*" or backcompat roots) and is a property element, add it into the array of values for that property as a { } structure, add to that { } structure:
***** if that child element itself has a microformat ("h-*" or backcompat roots) and is a property element, add it into the array of values for that property as a { } structure, add to that { } structure:
-
****** <code>value: "parsed property value per p-*,u-*,dt-* parsing respectively",</code>
+
****** <code>value</code>:  
-
******* for <code>e-*</code> properties in particular, re-use its { } structure with existing <code>value:</code> inside.
+
******* if it's a <code>p-*</code> property element, use the first p-name of the h-* child
 +
******* else if it's an <code>e-*</code> property element, re-use its { } structure with existing <code>value:</code> inside.
 +
******* else if it's a <code>u-*</code> property element and the h-* child has a u-url, use the first such u-url
 +
******* else use the parsed property value per p-*,u-*,dt-* parsing respectively
***** else add found elements that are microformats to the "children" array
***** else add found elements that are microformats to the "children" array
*** imply properties for the found microformat (see below)
*** imply properties for the found microformat (see below)
 +
 +
The "*" for root (and property) class names consists only of lowercase a-z and '-' characters.
=== parse an element for properties ===
=== parse an element for properties ===
-
==== parsing a p- property ====
 
-
To parse an element for a p-x property value:
 
-
* parse the element for the [[value-class-pattern]], if a value is found then return it.
 
-
* if abbr.p-x[title], then return the title attribute
 
-
* else if data.p-x[value] or input.p-x[value], then return the value attribute
 
-
* else if img.p-x[alt] or area.p-x[alt], then return the alt attribute
 
-
* else return the textContent of the element, replacing any nested <code>&lt;img></code> elements with their <code>alt</code> attribute if present, or otherwise their <code>src</code> attribute if present, resolving any relative URLs.
 
-
==== parsing a u- property ====
+
==== parsing a <code>p-</code> property ====
-
To parse an element for a u-x property value:
+
-
* if a.u-x[href] or area.u-x[href], then get the href attribute
+
-
* else if img.u-x[src] or audio.u-x[src] or video.u-x[src] or source.u-x[src], then get the src attribute
+
-
* else if object.u-x[data], then get the data attribute
+
-
* if there is a gotten value, return the normalized absolute URL of it, following the containing document's language's rules for resolving relative URLs (e.g. in HTML, use the current URL context as determined by the page, and first <code>&lt;base&gt;</code> element if any).
+
-
* else parse the element for the [[value-class-pattern]], if a value is found then return it.
+
-
* else if abbr.u-x[title], then return the title attribute
+
-
* else if data.u-x[value] or input.u-x[value], then return the value attribute
+
-
* else return the textContent of the element.
+
-
==== parsing a dt- property ====
+
To parse an element for a <code>p-x</code> property value (whether explicit <code>p-*</code> or backcompat equivalent):
-
To parse an element for a dt-x property value:
+
 
-
* parse the element for the [[value-class-pattern]] including the date and time parsing rules, if a value is found then return it.
+
* Parse the element for the [[value-class-pattern]]. If a value is found, return it.
-
* if time.dt-x[datetime] or ins.dt-x[datetime] or del.dt-x[datetime], then return the datetime attribute
+
* If <code>abbr.p-x[title]</code>, return the <code>title</code> attribute.
-
* else if abbr.dt-x[title], then return the title attribute
+
* else if <code>data.p-x[value]</code> or <code>input.p-x[value]</code>, then return the <code>value</code> attribute
-
* else if data.dt-x[value] or input.dt-x[value], then return the value attribute
+
* else if <code>img.p-x[alt]</code> or <code>area.p-x[alt]</code>, then return the <code>alt</code> attribute
-
* else return the textContent of the element.
+
* else return the <code>textContent</code> of the element after:
 +
** dropping any nested <code>&lt;script&gt;</code> &amp; <code>&lt;style&gt;</code> elements;
 +
** replacing any nested <code>&lt;img&gt;</code> elements with their <code>alt</code> attribute, if present; otherwise their <code>src</code> attribute, if present, adding a space at the beginning and end, resolving any relative URLs, and removing all leading/trailing whitespace.
 +
 
 +
==== parsing a <code>u-</code> property ====
 +
 
 +
To parse an element for a <code>u-x</code> property value (whether explicit <code>u-*</code> or backcompat equivalent):
 +
 
 +
* if <code>a.u-x[href]</code> or <code>area.u-x[href]</code>, then get the <code>href</code> attribute
 +
* else if <code>img.u-x[src]</code> or <code>audio.u-x[src]</code> or <code>video.u-x[src]</code> or <code>source.u-x[src]</code>, then get the <code>src</code> attribute
 +
* else if <code>video.u-x[poster]</code>, then get the <code>poster</code> attribute
 +
* else if <code>object.u-x[data]</code>, then get the <code>data</code> attribute
 +
* if there is a gotten value, return the normalized absolute URL of it, following the containing document's language's rules for resolving relative URLs (e.g. in HTML, use the current URL context as determined by the page, and first <code>&lt;base&gt;</code> element, if any).
 +
* else parse the element for the [[value-class-pattern]]. If a value is found, return it.
 +
* else if <code>abbr.u-x[title]</code>, then return the <code>title</code> attribute
 +
* else if <code>data.u-x[value]</code> or <code>input.u-x[value]</code>, then return the <code>value</code> attribute
 +
* else return the <code>textContent</code> of the element after removing all leading/trailing whitespace and nested <code>&lt;script></code> &amp; <code>&lt;style></code> elements.
 +
 
 +
==== parsing a <code>dt-</code> property ====
 +
 
 +
To parse an element for a <code>dt-x</code> property value (whether explicit <code>dt-*</code> or backcompat equivalent):
 +
 
 +
* parse the element for the [[value-class-pattern]], including the date and time parsing rules. If a value is found, then return it.
 +
* if <code>time.dt-x[datetime]</code> or <code>ins.dt-x[datetime]</code> or <code>del.dt-x[datetime]</code>, then return the <code>datetime</code> attribute
 +
* else if <code>abbr.dt-x[title]</code>, then return the <code>title</code> attribute
 +
* else if <code>data.dt-x[value]</code> or <code>input.dt-x[value]</code>, then return the <code>value</code> attribute
 +
* else return the <code>>textContent</code>> of the element after removing all leading/trailing whitespace and nested <code>&lt;script&gt;</code> &amp; <code>&lt;style&gt;</code> elements.
 +
 
 +
==== parsing an <code>e-</code> property ====
 +
To parse an element for a <code>e-x</code> property value (whether explicit "<code>e-*"</code> or backcompat equivalent):
-
==== parsing an e- property ====
 
-
To parse an element for a e-x property value:
 
* return a dictionary with two keys:
* return a dictionary with two keys:
-
** <code>html</code>: the innerHTML of the element by using the [https://html.spec.whatwg.org/multipage/syntax.html#serialising-html-fragments HTML spec: Serializing HTML Fragments algorithm].
+
** <code>html</code>: the <code>innerHTML</code> of the element by using the [https://html.spec.whatwg.org/multipage/syntax.html#serialising-html-fragments HTML spec: Serializing HTML Fragments algorithm], with leading/trailing whitespace removed.
-
** <code>value</code>: the textContent of the element, replacing any nested <code>&lt;img></code> elements with their <code>alt</code> attribute if present, or otherwise their <code>src</code> attribute if present, resolving the URL if it’s relative.
+
** <code>value</code>: the <code>textContent</code> of the element, replacing any nested <code>&lt;img&gt;</code> elements with their <code>alt</code> attribute if present, or otherwise their <code>src</code> attribute if present, resolving the URL if it’s relative.
==== parsing for implied properties ====
==== parsing for implied properties ====
-
To imply properties: (where h-x is the root microformat element being parsed)
+
 
-
* if no explicit "name" property,  
+
Imply properties only on explicit <code>h-x</code> class name root microformat element (no backcompat roots):
 +
 
 +
* if no explicit "<code>name</code>" property,  
* then imply by:
* then imply by:
-
** if img.h-x or area.h-x, then use its alt attribute for name
+
** if <code>img.h-x</code> or <code>area.h-x</code>, then use its <code>alt</code> attribute for name
-
** else if abbr.h-x[title] then use its title attribute for name
+
** else if <code>abbr.h-x[title]</code> then use its <code>title</code> attribute for name
-
** else if .h-x>img:only-child[alt]:not[.h-*] then use that img alt for name
+
** else if <code>.h-x>img:only-child[alt]:not([alt=""]):not[.h-*]</code> then use that <code>img</code>’s <code>alt</code> for name
-
** else if .h-x>area:only-child[alt]:not[.h-*] then use that area alt for name
+
** else if <code>.h-x>area:only-child[alt]:not([alt=""]):not[.h-*]</code> then use that <code>area</code>’s <code>alt</code> for name
-
** else if .h-x>abbr:only-child[title] then use that abbr title for name
+
** else if <code>.h-x>abbr:only-child[title]:not([title=""]):not[.h-*]</code> then use that <code>abbr</code> <code>title</code> for name
-
** else if .h-x>:only-child>img:only-child[alt]:not[.h-*] then use that img alt for name
+
** else if <code>.h-x>:only-child:not[.h-*]>img:only-child[alt]:not([alt=""]):not[.h-*]</code> then use that <code>img</code>’s <code>alt</code> for name
-
** else if .h-x>:only-child>area:only-child[alt]:not[.h-*] then use that area alt for name
+
** else if <code>.h-x>:only-child:not[.h-*]>area:only-child[alt]:not([alt=""]):not[.h-*]</code> then use that <code>area</code>’s <code>alt</code> for name
-
** else if .h-x>:only-child>abbr:only-child[title] use that abbr title for name
+
** else if <code>.h-x>:only-child:not[.h-*]>abbr:only-child[title]:not([title=""]):not[.h-*]</code> use that <code>abbr</code>’s <code>title</code> for name
-
** else use the textContent of the .h-x for name
+
** else use the <code>textContent</code> of the <code>.h-x</code> for name
-
** drop leading & trailing white-space from name, including nbsp
+
** drop all leading and trailing whitespace from name
-
* if no explicit "photo" property,  
+
* if no explicit "<code>photo</code>" property,  
* then imply by:
* then imply by:
-
** if img.h-x[src] then use src for photo
+
** if <code>img.h-x[src]</code>, then use <code>src</code> for photo
-
** else if object.h-x[data] then use data for photo
+
** else if <code>object.h-x[data]</code> then use <code>data</code> for photo
-
** else if .h-x>img[src]:only-of-type:not[.h-*] then use that img src for photo
+
** else if <code>.h-x>img[src]:only-of-type:not[.h-*]</code> then use that <code>img</code> <code>src</code> for photo
-
** else if .h-x>object[data]:only-of-type:not[.h-*] then use that object data for photo
+
** else if <code>.h-x>object[data]:only-of-type:not[.h-*]</code> then use that <code>object</code>’s <code>data</code> for photo
-
** else if .h-x>:only-child>img[src]:only-of-type:not[.h-*] then use that img src for photo
+
** else if <code>.h-x>:only-child:not[.h-*]>img[src]:only-of-type:not[.h-*]</code>, then use that <code>img</code>’s <code>src</code> for photo
-
** else if .h-x>:only-child>object[data]:only-of-type:not[.h-*] then use that object data for photo
+
** else if <code>.h-x>:only-child:not[.h-*]>object[data]:only-of-type:not[.h-*]</code>, then use that <code>object</code>’s <code>data</code> for photo
-
** if there is a gotten photo value, return the normalized absolute URL of it, following the containing document's language's rules for resolving relative URLs (e.g. in HTML, use the current URL context as determined by the page, and first <base> element if any).
+
** if there is a gotten photo value, return the normalized absolute URL of it, following the containing document's language's rules for resolving relative URLs (e.g. in HTML, use the current URL context as determined by the page, and first <code>&lt;base&gt;</code> element, if any).
-
* if no explicit "url" property,
+
* if no explicit "<code>url</code>" property,
* then imply by:
* then imply by:
-
** if a.h-x[href] or area.h-x[href] then use that [href] for url
+
** if <code>a.h-x[href]</code> or <code>area.h-x[href]</code> then use that <code>[href]</code> for url
-
** else if .h-x>a[href]:only-of-type:not[.h-*] then use that [href] for url
+
** else if <code>.h-x>a[href]:only-of-type:not[.h-*]</code>, then use that <code>[href]</code> for url
-
** else if .h-x>area[href]:only-of-type:not[.h-*] then use that [href] for url
+
** else if <code>.h-x>area[href]:only-of-type:not[.h-*]</code>, then use that <code>[href]</code> for url
-
** if there is a gotten url value, return the normalized absolute URL of it, following the containing document's language's rules for resolving relative URLs (e.g. in HTML, use the current URL context as determined by the page, and first <base> element if any).
+
** else if <code>.h-x>:only-child:not[.h-*]>a[href]:only-of-type:not[.h-*]</code>, then use that <code>[href]</code> for url
 +
** else if <code>.h-x>:only-child:not[.h-*]>area[href]:only-of-type:not[.h-*]</code>, then use that <code>[href]</code> for url
 +
** if there is a gotten url value, return the normalized absolute URL of it, following the containing document's language's rules for resolving relative URLs (e.g. in HTML, use the current URL context as determined by the page, and first <code>&lt;base&gt;</code> element, if any).
-
Note: The same markup for a property should not be causing that property to occur in <em>both</em> a microformat and one embedded inside - such a property should only be showing up on one of them. The parsing algorithm has details to prevent that, such as the <code>:not[.h-*]</code> tests above.
+
<strong>Note:</strong> The same markup for a property should not be causing that property to occur in <em>both</em> a microformat and one embedded inside - such a property should only be showing up on one of them. The parsing algorithm has details to prevent that, such as the <code>:not[.h-*]</code> tests above.
=== parse a hyperlink element for rel microformats ===
=== parse a hyperlink element for rel microformats ===
-
To parse a hyperlink element for rel microformats: (where * is the hyperlink element), use the following algorithm or an algorithm that produces equivalent results:
+
To parse a hyperlink element (e.g. a or link) for rel microformats: use the following algorithm or an algorithm that produces equivalent results:
* if the "rel" attribute of the element is empty then exit
* if the "rel" attribute of the element is empty then exit
* set url to the value of the "href" attribute of the element, normalized to be an absolute URL following the containing document's language's rules for resolving relative URLs (e.g. in HTML, use the current URL context as determined by the page, and first <code>&lt;base&gt;</code> element if any).
* set url to the value of the "href" attribute of the element, normalized to be an absolute URL following the containing document's language's rules for resolving relative URLs (e.g. in HTML, use the current URL context as determined by the page, and first <code>&lt;base&gt;</code> element if any).
* treat the "rel" attribute of the element as a space separate set of rel values
* treat the "rel" attribute of the element as a space separate set of rel values
-
* if the set of rel values does NOT have "alternate" then
+
* for each rel value (rel-value)
-
** for each rel value (rel-value)
+
** if there is no key rel-value in the rels hash then create it with an empty array as its value
-
*** if there is no key rel-value in the rels hash then create it with an empty array as its value
+
** if url is not in the array of the key rel-value in the rels hash then add url to the array
-
*** add url to the array of the key rel-value in the rels hash
+
* end for
-
** end for
+
* if there is no key with name url in the top-level "rel-urls" hash then add a key with name url there, with an empty hash value
-
* else
+
* add keys to the hash of the key with name url for each of these attributes (if present) and key not already set:
-
** if there's no top-level "alternates" array, then create it as an empty array.
+
-
** add a new hash to the top-level "alternates" array with keys for each of these attributes when present:
+
-
*** "url": url
+
-
*** "rel": the set of rel values appended with spaces, except "alternate"
+
-
*** "hreflang": the value of the "hreflang" attribute
+
-
*** "media": the value of the "media" attribute
+
-
*** "title": the value of the "title" attribute
+
-
*** "type": the value of the "type" attribute
+
-
*** "text": the text content of the element if any
+
-
* end if
+
-
* add a key with name url in the top-level "rel-urls" hash, with an empty hash value
+
-
* add keys to that hash for each of these attributes when present:
+
** "hreflang": the value of the "hreflang" attribute
** "hreflang": the value of the "hreflang" attribute
** "media": the value of the "media" attribute
** "media": the value of the "media" attribute
Line 142: Line 154:
** "type": the value of the "type" attribute
** "type": the value of the "type" attribute
** "text": the text content of the element if any
** "text": the text content of the element if any
-
* add a "rels" key to that hash with value of an array of all items in the set of rel values
+
* if there is no "rels" key in that hash, add it with an empty array value
 +
* set the value of that "rels" key to an array of all unique items in the set of rel values unioned with the current array value of the "rels" key
==== rel parse examples ====
==== rel parse examples ====
Line 165: Line 178:
   "rels": {  
   "rels": {  
     "author": [ "http://example.com/a", "http://example.com/b" ],
     "author": [ "http://example.com/a", "http://example.com/b" ],
-
     "in-reply-to": [ "http://example.com/1", "http://example.com/2" ]  
+
     "in-reply-to": [ "http://example.com/1", "http://example.com/2" ],
 +
    "alternate": [ "http://example.com/fr" ],
 +
    "home": [ "http://example.com/fr" ]  
   },
   },
-
   "rel-urls": [{
+
   "rel-urls": {
     "http://example.com/a": {
     "http://example.com/a": {
       "rels": ["author"],  
       "rels": ["author"],  
Line 191: Line 206:
     }
     }
   }
   }
-
  "alternates": [{
 
-
    "url": "http://example.com/fr",
 
-
    "rel": "home",
 
-
    "media": "handheld",
 
-
    "hreflang": "fr",
 
-
    "text": "French mobile homepage"
 
-
  }]
 
}
}
</source>
</source>
-
Another parse output example can be found here:
 
-
* https://gist.github.com/barnabywalters/5480962
 
== what do the CSS selector expressions mean ==
== what do the CSS selector expressions mean ==
Line 219: Line 225:
* ignore <code>&lt;template&gt;</code> elements - stuff between <code>&lt;template&gt;</code> tags don't end up in the DOM
* ignore <code>&lt;template&gt;</code> elements - stuff between <code>&lt;template&gt;</code> tags don't end up in the DOM
** test-case in the wild: http://sixtwothree.org/blog/now-accepting-webmentions/
** test-case in the wild: http://sixtwothree.org/blog/now-accepting-webmentions/
 +
 +
== note backward compatibility details ==
 +
The parsing algorithm and details refer to "backcompat root classes" (backcompat roots for short) and "backcompat properties". These conditions and steps in the algorithm document how to parse pre-microformats2 microformats which all defined their own specific root class names and explicit sets of properties.
 +
 +
Some details to be aware of (which are explicitly in the algorithm, this is just an informal summary)
 +
* If an element has one or more microformats2 root class name(s) (<code>h-*</code>)
 +
** all backcompat root class names are ignored on that element.
 +
** all backcompat properties, without an intervening root class name, are ignored inside that element
 +
* If an element has only a backcompat root class name (or names)
 +
** all microformats2 property class names (p-* u-* dt-* e-*), without an intervening element with root class name, are ignored inside that element
 +
** there is no implied property value parsing (p-name, u-url, u-photo) for that element
 +
 +
=== backward compatibility mappings ===
 +
Note: several parser implementations have encoded backward compatible mappings into source and data files. Implementers of parsers may find these useful:
 +
* search for "modules.maps[" in https://github.com/glennjones/microformat-shiv/blob/master/microformat-shiv.js
 +
* search for "$classicPropertyMap" in https://github.com/indieweb/php-mf2/blob/master/Mf2/Parser.php
 +
* https://github.com/tommorris/mf2py/blob/master/mf2py/backcompat.py
== questions ==
== questions ==
Line 234: Line 257:
== test suite ==
== test suite ==
See:
See:
-
 
* https://github.com/microformats/tests
* https://github.com/microformats/tests
-
* https://github.com/indieweb/php-mf2/tree/master/tests/mf2
+
* https://github.com/indieweb/php-mf2/tree/master/tests/Mf2
Ports to/for other languages encouraged.
Ports to/for other languages encouraged.
 +
 +
== change control ==
 +
Minor editorial changes (e.g. fixing minor typos or punctuation) that do not change and preferably clarify the structure and existing intended meaning may be done by anyone without filing issues, requiring only a sufficient "Summary" description field entry for the edit. More than minor but still purely editorial changes may be made by an editor. Anyone may question such editorial changes by undoing corresponding edits without filing an issue. Any further reversion or iteration on such an editorial change must be done by filing an issue.
 +
 +
Per the stable status of this document, substantive issue filing, resolution, and edits are done with the following change control steps, which may nearly all be done asynchronously once an issue is filed to reach the required state of "Resolve by implementation verified rough consensus". All steps should be openly documented (e.g. on this wiki or GitHub issues) such that others may later verify the history of an issue, and all steps are encouraged to be announced on #microformats [[IRC]] with a link to the issue.
 +
 +
* '''File an issue.''' Anyone may file a new [[microformats2-parsing-issues|issue]] and is encouraged to do so, with the caveat that per the stable status, only issues originating as a result of implementation experience are likely to have a substantive impact on this specification.
 +
* '''Propose a resolution.''' Anyone may propose resolutions to existing issues, and should encourage others in the community, especially implementers, to provide feedback. Proposed resolutions should include what specific text of the spec needs changing, preferably with replacement text, and test cases if applicable (e.g. a resolution could just document the current state more precisely without needing to provide any new test cases).
 +
* '''Provide feedback on proposed resolution(s).''' Anyone may provide feedback on proposed resolutions with their name attached, in summary (e.g. +1/0/-1 opinions), and additionally with reasoning (required for objections, optional otherwise), or optionally with suggested improvements, or counter-proposals (per "Propose a resolution" above).
 +
* '''Iterate to resolve objections if any.''' If there are any objections to a proposed resolution, proposer(s) and anyone agreeing should work to iterate on the proposal to resolve objections to the satisfaction (or at least withdrawal of objection) of anyone objecting. The more objections resolved the better, and incremental progress is forward progress.
 +
* '''Broaden implementer consensus.''' Proposer(s) and anyone agreeing should reach out (e.g. via #microformats [[IRC]]) to multiple implementers of the specification to get their opinions and feedback on proposal(s). The more implementers providing feedback the better. Iterate to resolve any new objections per "Iterate to resolve objections if any" above.
 +
* '''Encourage and get 1+ implementation(s).''' Encourage, get, and document 1+ implementation(s) of implementation affecting aspects of a proposed resolution, preferably with a test case if applicable.
 +
* '''Resolve by implementation verified rough consensus.''' Once there is rough consensus on a proposal (where <dfn>rough consensus</dfn> means <strong>either no objections, or at a minimum no objections by implementers, and explicit positive opinions by 2+ implementers</strong>) and a proposal's feasibility is verified by at least 1 implementation of aspects of the proposal that affect implementations (none needed if there are none, e.g. purely editorial), cite those in a "Resolution:" statement on the issue (e.g. in a comment), and explicitly share this resolution statement and link to issue in the #microformats [[IRC]] channel.
 +
* '''Edit specification.''' Normally the spec editor(s) will make edits per implementation verified rough consensus resolutions, however anyone (though especially issue discussion participants) may make a specification edit per a resolution if they are able to verify the citations that the resolution has achieve rough consensus, and has 1+ implementation(s) per "Encourage and get 1+ implementation(s)" above. Edits must contain a "Summary" field entry that at a minimum mention the issue by name, should provide a URL to the issue resolution, and preferably be done by a spec editor or an implementer. Once the edit is made, the issue should be closed, or at least a comment made on the issue requesting that the opener of the issue close the issue.
 +
 +
These change control steps are inspired by the tradition of "Rough consensus and running code" as exhibited by example by IETF and W3C processes, and in that regard, seek to be a philosophically compatible approach to specification iteration. They have been in rough practice since 2015-01-21, increasingly strictly applied since then with consensus of issue discussion participants, and explicitly documented based on issue resolving and spec editing experience.
== see also ==
== see also ==

Current revision

microformats2 is a simple, open format for marking up data in HTML. The microformats2 parsing specification describes how to implement a microformats2 parser, independent of any specific vocabularies.

Status
This is a Living Specification with several interoperable implementations. This specification is stable, subject to editorial changes only for improving clarity of existing meaning. While substantive changes are unexpected, it is a living specification subject to substantive change by issues and errata filed in response to implementation experience, requiring consensus among participating implementers (since 2015-01-21) as part of an explicit change control process. There are currently no draft or proposed new features in this specification, and if any were to be added, they would be explicitly labeled as such.
Note: This specification is only marked as a "Draft Specification" because of pending edits from resolved issues before 2016-06-20. Once those edits have been completed, the link to [[Category:Draft Specifications]] at the bottom of this document should be changed to [[Category:Specifications]].
Participate
Open Issues
Resolved issues before 2016-06-20
IRC: #microformats on Freenode
Editor
Tantek Çelik
License
Per CC0, to the extent possible under law, the editors have waived all copyright and related or neighboring rights to this work. In addition, as of 2017-11-19, the editors have made this specification available under the Open Web Foundation Agreement Version 1.0.

Contents

algorithm

parse a document for microformats

To parse a document for microformats, follow the HTML parsing rules and do the following:

{
 "items": [],
 "rels": {},
 "rel-urls": {}
}

Parsers may simultaneously parse the document for both class and rel microformats (e.g. in a single tree traversal).

parse an element for class microformats

To parse an element for class microformats:

The "*" for root (and property) class names consists only of lowercase a-z and '-' characters.

parse an element for properties

parsing a p- property

To parse an element for a p-x property value (whether explicit p-* or backcompat equivalent):

parsing a u- property

To parse an element for a u-x property value (whether explicit u-* or backcompat equivalent):

parsing a dt- property

To parse an element for a dt-x property value (whether explicit dt-* or backcompat equivalent):

parsing an e- property

To parse an element for a e-x property value (whether explicit "e-*" or backcompat equivalent):

parsing for implied properties

Imply properties only on explicit h-x class name root microformat element (no backcompat roots):

Note: The same markup for a property should not be causing that property to occur in both a microformat and one embedded inside - such a property should only be showing up on one of them. The parsing algorithm has details to prevent that, such as the :not[.h-*] tests above.

parse a hyperlink element for rel microformats

To parse a hyperlink element (e.g. a or link) for rel microformats: use the following algorithm or an algorithm that produces equivalent results:

rel parse examples

Here are some examples to show how parsed rels may be reflected into the JSON (empty items key).

E.g. parsing this markup:

<a rel="author" href="http://example.com/a">author a</a>
<a rel="author" href="http://example.com/b">author b</a>
<a rel="in-reply-to" href="http://example.com/1">post 1</a>
<a rel="in-reply-to" href="http://example.com/2">post 2</a>
<a rel="alternate home"
   href="http://example.com/fr"
   media="handheld"
   hreflang="fr">French mobile homepage</a>

Would generate this JSON:

{
  "items": [],
  "rels": { 
    "author": [ "http://example.com/a", "http://example.com/b" ],
    "in-reply-to": [ "http://example.com/1", "http://example.com/2" ],
    "alternate": [ "http://example.com/fr" ], 
    "home": [ "http://example.com/fr" ] 
  },
  "rel-urls": {
    "http://example.com/a": {
      "rels": ["author"], 
      "text": "author a"
    },
    "http://example.com/b": {
      "rels": ["author"], 
      "text": "author b"
    },
    "http://example.com/1": {
      "rels": ["in-reply-to"], 
      "text": "post 1"
    },
    "http://example.com/2": {
      "rels": ["in-reply-to"], 
      "text": "post 2"
    },
    "http://example.com/fr": {
      "rels": ["alternate", "home"],
      "media": "handheld", 
      "hreflang": "fr", 
      "text": "French mobile homepage"
    }
  }
}


what do the CSS selector expressions mean

This section is non-normative.

Use SelectORacle to expand any of the above CSS selector expressions into longform English prose.

Exception:

note HTML parsing rules

This section is non-normative.

microformats2 parsers are expected to follow HTML parsing rules, which includes for example:

note backward compatibility details

The parsing algorithm and details refer to "backcompat root classes" (backcompat roots for short) and "backcompat properties". These conditions and steps in the algorithm document how to parse pre-microformats2 microformats which all defined their own specific root class names and explicit sets of properties.

Some details to be aware of (which are explicitly in the algorithm, this is just an informal summary)

backward compatibility mappings

Note: several parser implementations have encoded backward compatible mappings into source and data files. Implementers of parsers may find these useful:

questions

See the FAQ:

issues

See the issues page:

implementations

Main article: microformats2#Implementations

There are open source microformats2 parsers available for Javascript, node.js, PHP, Ruby and Python.

test suite

See:

Ports to/for other languages encouraged.

change control

Minor editorial changes (e.g. fixing minor typos or punctuation) that do not change and preferably clarify the structure and existing intended meaning may be done by anyone without filing issues, requiring only a sufficient "Summary" description field entry for the edit. More than minor but still purely editorial changes may be made by an editor. Anyone may question such editorial changes by undoing corresponding edits without filing an issue. Any further reversion or iteration on such an editorial change must be done by filing an issue.

Per the stable status of this document, substantive issue filing, resolution, and edits are done with the following change control steps, which may nearly all be done asynchronously once an issue is filed to reach the required state of "Resolve by implementation verified rough consensus". All steps should be openly documented (e.g. on this wiki or GitHub issues) such that others may later verify the history of an issue, and all steps are encouraged to be announced on #microformats IRC with a link to the issue.

These change control steps are inspired by the tradition of "Rough consensus and running code" as exhibited by example by IETF and W3C processes, and in that regard, seek to be a philosophically compatible approach to specification iteration. They have been in rough practice since 2015-01-21, increasingly strictly applied since then with consensus of issue discussion participants, and explicitly documented based on issue resolving and spec editing experience.

see also

Categories

microformats2 parsing specification was last modified: Thursday, October 20th, 2016

Views