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=  Microformatsのご紹介 =
関連: [[press-ja|プレス]], [[presentations-ja|プレゼンテーション]], [[suggested-reading-ja|参考図書]], [[testimonials-ja|証言]]


== Microformatsとは? ==
== Microformatsとは? ==

Microformatsとは、XHTML semantic contentの"辞書"です. よく使われる情報-リッチなHTML コンテンツをsemanticな意味を機械で抽出できるようにコード化するためのものです.つまり、最も簡単にデータをWEB上で再利用するためにデザイン(もしくはフォーマット化)する方法なのです.
== Stub note ==
This page is a stub and could certainly use some contributions, especially from folks new to [[microformats]], and what key points and details from their perspective helped explain to them what microformats are, why they matter, what benefits they provide to web designers, information architects, web developers, web programmers etc. - [ Tantek]
== Why Microformats ==
Why did we come up with microformats?
In short, microformats are the convergence of a number of trends:
# a logical next step in the evolution of web design and information architecture
# a way for self-publishers to publish richer information themselves, without having to rely upon centralized services
# an acknowledgment that "traditional" metadata efforts have either failed or taken so long to garner any adoption, that a new approach was necessary
# a way to use (X)HTML for data.
=== Evolution of Web Design ===
In the beginning (1990), there was [ HTML] and it was good.  It was simple, minimal, and used to semantically markup user visible data (text) and share it on the World Wide Web.

Then came the [ browser wars] (1994-1999) where dominant browser manufacturers took their turns introducing "innovative" presentational tags, giving the typical web author/designer what they wanted: a semblance of control over the presentation of their webpages.  The result: [ HTML 3.2] "standardized" these defacto presentational innovations.
もう少し技術的に詳しく言うと、Microformatsは標準の'' plain old semantic (X)HTML''(''[[posh-ja|POSH]]'' とも)と、ある共通の[[class-names|クラス名]]の集合や ''[[rel]]'' の値だけを使ったマークアップです。

The introduction of [ CSS1] (1996) and the semantically richer [ HTML4] (1998) brought a glimmer of hope, but it wasn't until years later (2000-2001), with the introduction of fully compliant (or almost) implementations of CSS1/HTML4 (IE5/Mac, IE6/Windows, Netscape 6) that it became practical for web designers to depend on CSS in their web pages.  Leaders in the community began to furiously adopt and promote CSS (even if it took [ a] [ hack] [ or] [ two]) and the efficiencies and enhanced productivity that separating presentation from markup brought them, yet remained a small vocal minority.
== 何故Microformatsなのか ==

The introduction of the Wired News redesign in 100% CSS, and the beautiful [ CSS Zen Garden] (2002-2003) was CSS's tipping point.  With the clear and obvious presentation of visual beauty and broad creativity, designers world-wide "got it" and realized that this was the future of web design.  The presentational markup of <code>&lt;FONT&gt;</code>, <code>&lt;TABLE&gt;</code>, and <code>spacer.gif</code> were tossed aside by any and all self-respecting web designers, who discovered the near infinite flexibility of <code>&lt;div&gt;</code>, <code>&lt;span&gt;</code>, and the 'class' attribute.  A few in the community even began adopting some of the more semantic elements in HTML: <code>&lt;p&gt;</code>, <code>&lt;h1&gt;</code>...<code>&lt;h6&gt;</code>, <code>&lt;ol&gt;</code>, <code>&lt;ul&gt;</code>, <code>&lt;li&gt;</code>, <code>&lt;em&gt;</code>, <code>&lt;strong&gt;</code>.  Leaders in the community exercised the semantic limits of strict HTML4 (experimented with XHTML) and documented [ best practices].

As the community followed rapidly in the footpaths they had worn, the leaders began to run into the limits of semantic (X)HTML.  Other subcultures were attempting to rewrite the world in their own language(s) (<abbr title="Resource Description Framework">[ RDF]</abbr>, "plain" <abbr title="eXtensible Markup Language">[ XML]</abbr> (<abbr title="David Janes on the failure of *plain XML* approaches">[ 2]</abbr>), <abbr title="Scalable Vector Graphics">[ SVG]</abbr>), yet not having much of an impact on the World Wide Web, which required human presentable data, compatible with the browsers people already used.  [ Social Software] and [ Blogs], written by this new generation of web designers and programmers, began to take off. 

Natural patterns emerged from the way people used blogging systems, putting things into lists, for example lists of other bloggers (known as blogrolls), and annotating them with information representing relationships such has having met, friends, family, etc. The first microformat, <abbr title="XHTML Friends Network">[ XFN]</abbr>, was designed to match these behaviors, and [ introduced to the blogging community] (2003-2004), who adopted it within weeks.  The [ GMPG] was formed as a home for XFN, and documented a few key [ design principles] later adopted for microformats.  The key notion, that semantic (X)HTML could be extended, had been introduced and accepted by the community.
# Webデザインや情報構造の進化の中での論理的な次のステップである
# 中央集権的なサービスを信頼せずとも、リッチな情報を公開する人々や組織のための方法である
# (専門家領域以外での)"従来の"メタデータの試みは失敗したり広く導入されるまでにとても長い時間がかかることが判明したので新しいアプローチが必要とされていた
# データのための[[(X)HTML]]を使うことができる

By understanding, using, and combining semantic (X)HTML building blocks, as well as determining that semantic (X)HTML could be validly extended via new rel, meta name, and class values, defined in (X)HTML profiles in the [ XMDP format], the community began to design and develop many more microformats (2004-2005).  More patterns emerged from the blogging community, and each aggregate human behavior drove the design of simple, adaptive microformats to meet its needs.  Creative Commons licensing became popular and [[rel-license]] was proposed.  Outlines and lists: [[xoxo|XOXO]]. Contact info: [[hcard|hCard]].  Calendars and events [[hcalendar|hCalendar]].
== シンプルさの魅力 ==

Using these new found building blocks, the web design and information architecture communities were no longer limited by the predefined semantics of HTML4 (nor did they have to compromise human presentation and ease of authoring which other attempts sorely lacked).  2005 may well be the year that microformats became the next step in the evolution of the web.
* Microformats は、今までの複雑なセマンティクスへの取り組みに対して不満を抱えていた多くの人たちの興味をそそった、シンプルな試みです。これは、Webサービスの世界における、RESTの存在と似ているとも言えます。RESTに関してもっと知りたい方は、[[suggested-reading#REST|REST関連のおススメな読み物]]のセクションをご覧ください。
* Justin Leavesleyによる、[ Web Services and Innovators Dilemma](Webサービスと革新者のジレンマ)もご覧ください。
=== The Appeal to Simplicity ===
* Microformats are a simple effort which has appealed to many frustrated with previous complex efforts.  One parallel that can be drawn is to REST in the web services world, i.e. see this [ comparison of microformats and REST].  See the [ REST wiki] for more about REST.
* See also: [ Web Services and the Innovators Dilemma] by  Justin Leavesley

== See Also ==
== See Also ==
* [ Andrew D. Hume] has written a blog post [ introducing microformats] and another one on [ usable microformats].
* 最近の[[press-ja|プレス]]のインタビューや[[articles-ja|記事]]もよい手引きとなります。
* See microformat [[presentations]] for more background and introductory material on [[microformats]].
* [[microformats-ja]]にある[[presentations-ja|プレゼンテーション]]も背景を更に知ったり、導入のための資料となるでしょう。
* Recent [[press]] interviews and articles are also a good introduction.
* microformatsについての[[podcasts-ja|ポッドキャスト]]を聴いてください。
* [[suggested-reading]]
* 一般的なmicroformatsに関する疑問については[[faq-ja|FAQs]]を読んでください。
* [[implement|So you wanna implement microformats?]]
* [[suggested-reading-ja|suggested reading]]もあります。
* [[implement-ja|microformatsを実装したいですか?]]
== Miscellaneous Reference ==
* [[presentations-ja]]
* [[podcasts-ja]]
These are various intro-related links/articles which I haven't figured out yet how to incorporate.  You may find them of interest. - [ Tantek]
* [[suggested-reading-ja]]
* [[testimonials-ja]]

* [ Data First vs. Structure First]
== 外部資料 ==
** [ Tantek] says: In many ways it is actually *far* worse than that post conveys.  The "typical" programmer literally loves spending far more time worrying about and designing the structure for structure's sake, than data, and even less so, "real world" data (current behaviors etc.). Hence we have taken the directly opposite tack with microformats when looking to solve a problem.
* Sitepoint に導入のためのすばらしいチュートリアルがあります:[ Microformats - Plugging the Gaps in HTML]
*** Zeroeth, define the real-world problem.  If you can't do this, then stop.
* Premasagar は[ microformat のすばらしい例をソース付きで]書きました。
*** First, look at real-world usage (data).
*** Second, what previous standards are people actually using today?  If there is more than one, then lean towards those with the better adoption.
***And only after those first two do we bother to pay attention to theoretical standards, those that have been invented (whether by individuals, committees), but haven't seen much if any actual adoption.
* [ 2000-03-21 Dan Connolly on human-consumable information]: ('''strong emphasis''' added)
** I believe that one of the best ways to transition into RDF, if not a long-term deployment strategy for RDF, is to '''manage the information in human-consumable form (XHTML) annotated with just enough info to extract''' the RDF statements that the human info is intended to convey. In other words: using a relational database or some sort of native RDF data store, and spitting out HTML dynamically, is a lot of infrastructure to operate and probably not worth it for lots of interesting cases. '''We all know that we have to produce a human-readable version of the thing... why not use that as the primary source?'''

Latest revision as of 16:28, 18 July 2020



もう少し技術的に詳しく言うと、Microformatsは標準の plain old semantic (X)HTMLPOSH とも)と、ある共通のクラス名の集合や rel の値だけを使ったマークアップです。 オープンで誰でも自由に使用することができます。




  1. Webデザインや情報構造の進化の中での論理的な次のステップである
  2. 中央集権的なサービスを信頼せずとも、リッチな情報を公開する人々や組織のための方法である
  3. (専門家領域以外での)"従来の"メタデータの試みは失敗したり広く導入されるまでにとても長い時間がかかることが判明したので新しいアプローチが必要とされていた
  4. データのための(X)HTMLを使うことができる


  • Microformats は、今までの複雑なセマンティクスへの取り組みに対して不満を抱えていた多くの人たちの興味をそそった、シンプルな試みです。これは、Webサービスの世界における、RESTの存在と似ているとも言えます。RESTに関してもっと知りたい方は、REST関連のおススメな読み物のセクションをご覧ください。
  • Justin Leavesleyによる、Web Services and Innovators Dilemma(Webサービスと革新者のジレンマ)もご覧ください。

See Also