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<h1> Citation Examples </h1>
+
{{DISPLAYTITLE: Citation Examples }}
  
 
The following examples are real world examples of citations found on the web. Please add to this list. The idea is that we get a solid sample of examples and see what commonalities there are amonst them and try to build this microformat so that it can meet 80% of typical uses.
 
The following examples are real world examples of citations found on the web. Please add to this list. The idea is that we get a solid sample of examples and see what commonalities there are amonst them and try to build this microformat so that it can meet 80% of typical uses.
  
See also:
+
'''To add examples:''' please first add a copy of the HTML source for your example at the [[citation-examples-markup]] page, then add a description of the example to this page, with a link to the corresponding section on [[citation-examples-markup]]. Thanks!
* [[citation]]
 
* [[citation-formats]]
 
* [[citation-brainstorming]]
 
  
 
__TOC__
 
__TOC__
 
== Contributors ==
 
* ...
 
* ...
 
* Tantek Çelik
 
* [http://michael-mccracken.net/wp/ Michael McCracken]
 
* Tim White
 
  
 
== Citation Mark Up in the Wild ==
 
== Citation Mark Up in the Wild ==
Mark up examples from reference publisher's websites (online catalogs), including ABC-CLIO, Greenwood Press, Marshall Cavendish, Oxford University Press (USA) and Thomson Gale. Examples are broken down and organized by element.  
+
Mark up examples, e.g. including from reference publisher's websites (online catalogs), including ABC-CLIO, Greenwood Press, Marshall Cavendish, Oxford University Press (USA) and Thomson Gale. Examples are broken down and organized by element.  
  
View complete [[citations in the wild]]. (why is this a separate page?)
+
=== ABC-CLIO Product detail page ===
 +
[http://www.abc-clio.com/products/overview.aspx?productid=109327 ABC-CLIO example]
 +
[[citation-examples-markup#ABC-CLIO_Product_detail_page.C2.A0.28http:.2F.2Fwww.abc-clio.com.2Fproducts.2Foverview.aspx.3Fproductid.3D109327.29|ABC-CLIO Original Markup]]
  
=== Book titles: ===
+
* title
<pre>
+
* subtitle
&lt;span id="title" class="producttitle"&gt;The 1920's&lt;/span&gt;
+
* author
(ABC-CLIO product detail page)
+
* image
 +
* publication date
 +
* pages
 +
* volumes
 +
* specifications (book dimentions 8.5x11, weight, etc)
 +
* Format - (Hardback, softback)
 +
* Price
 +
* ISBN
  
&lt;div class="title"&gt; &lt;a href="..."&gt;The Greenwood Encyclopedia of World Folklore and Folklife&lt;/a&gt; &lt;/div&gt;
+
=== ACM Digital Library Search Result Examples ===
(Greenwood Press homepage)
 
  
&lt;span id="lblTitle" class="book_headline block"&gt;The Greenwood Encyclopedia of World Folklore and Folklife&lt;/span&gt;
+
The [http://www.acm.org/dl/ ACM Digital Library] is a heavily used computer science literature database.
(Greenwood Press product detail page)
 
  
&lt;td width="35%"&gt;&lt;font id="title_catalogue_title_font"&gt;Title&lt;/font&gt;&lt;/td&gt;
+
The [[citation-examples-markup#ACM_Digital_Library_Search_Result_Examples|ACM Original Markup]] contained two examples, a journal article and a conference proceedings article.
&lt;td width="65%"&gt;&lt;font id="text"&gt;The New Terrorism: Anatomy, Trends and Counter-strategies&lt;/font&gt;&lt;/td&gt;
 
(Marshall Cavendish product detail page)
 
  
&lt;h2&gt; &lt;a href="..."&gt;The Glorious Cause&lt;/a&gt; &lt;/h2&gt;
+
''Journal article:''
(Oxford Univ. Press, homepage)
 
  
&lt;h1&gt;The Glorious Cause&lt;/h1&gt;
+
* title
(OUP, product detail page)
+
* authors
 +
* Pages
 +
* format (PDF)
 +
* Additional Information
 +
* abstract
 +
* index terms
 +
* journal
 +
* issue
 +
* volume
 +
* pubdate
 +
* DOI
  
&lt;h2&gt;Contemporary Literary Criticism&lt;/h2&gt;
+
''Conference Proceedings:''
(Thomson Gale, product detail page)
 
  
&lt;span id="ctlBookDetailHeader_lblTitle" class="ProdTitle"&gt;Talk and Interaction in Social Research Methods&lt;/span&gt; (SAGE Publications)
+
* title
</pre>
+
* authors
Also, many examples where books presented in table format with Title as cell header, or presented "Title: "
+
* author institutions
 +
* source (conference + proceedings name)
 +
* page
 +
* year
 +
* isbn
 +
* publisher name & address
 +
* DOI
 +
* abstract
 +
* subject category labels
 +
* keywords
  
=== Book Series Name: ===
+
=== Amazon.com citation info ===
<pre>
 
&lt;span id="serieslbl" class="productsubtitle"&gt;&lt;a href="..."&gt;Teaching With Documents Series&lt;/a&gt;&lt;/span&gt;
 
(ABC-CLIO)
 
</pre>
 
  
=== Sub-title: ===
+
This is from a detail page on Amazon.com for a book.
<pre>
 
&lt;span id="subtitle" class="productsubtitle"&gt;&lt;/span&gt;
 
(ABC-CLIO)
 
  
 +
[[citation-examples-markup#Amazon.com_citation_info|Amazon's Original Markup]]
  
&lt;div class="sub_title"&gt;[Four Volumes]&lt;/div&gt;
+
* title
(Greenwood, homepage)
+
* author
 +
* series title
 +
* page
  
&lt;span id="lblSubTitle" class="book_subline"&gt;[Four Volumes]&lt;/span&gt;
+
=== CiteSeer database search results ===
(Greenwood, product page)
 
  
 +
The [http://citeseer.ist.psu.edu CiteSeer] database has been another heavily used Computer Science online resource, and it has minimal markup:
 +
#[[citation-examples-markup#CiteSeer_database_search_results|CiteSeer's Original Markup]]
 +
#[[citation-examples#CiteSeer|CiteSeer's Original Example 2]]
  
&lt;div class="subTitle"&gt; The American Revolution, 1763-1789 &lt;/div&gt;
+
* author
(OUP)
+
* title
</pre>
+
* journal
 +
* pages
 +
* publication date
 +
* URL
 +
* Accessed On
  
=== Author: ===
+
=== CiteULike.org citation listing ===
<pre>
 
&lt;span id="credit" class="productauthor"&gt;&lt;/span&gt;
 
(ABC-CLIO)
 
  
 +
[http://www.citeulike.org/ CiteULike]
  
&lt;div class="author"&gt;William M. Clements&lt;/div&gt;
+
[[citation-examples-markup#CiteULike.org_citation_listing|CiteULike's Original Markup]]
(Greenwood)
 
  
 +
* title
 +
* author
 +
* subjects
 +
* image
 +
* Volume
 +
* Number
 +
* publication date
 +
* page
  
&lt;td width="35%"&gt;&lt;font id="title_catalogue_title_font"&gt;Authors&lt;/font&gt;&lt;/td&gt;
+
Links to services with the following IDs embedded in the link
&lt;td width="65%"&gt;&lt;font id="text"&gt;Andrew Tan &amp; Kumar Ramakrishna (eds)&lt;/font&gt;&lt;/td&gt;
+
* Z3988
(Marshall Cavendish)
+
* DOI
 +
* Pubmed
 +
* Hubmed
  
 +
=== CiteProc XHTML Output ===
 +
[[citation-examples-markup#CiteProc_XHTML_Output|CiteProc Original Markup]]
  
&lt;div class="byline"&gt; Robert Middlekauff &lt;/div&gt;
+
The XHTML output for CiteProc[http://xbiblio.sourceforge.net/citeproc/] wasn't designed per se as a microformat, but is probably not a bad place to start. It is designed to handle a wide range of content. Here is the APA output:
(OUP)
 
</pre>
 
  
=== Publication Date: ===
+
* refID (HTML @ID)
<pre>
+
* creator
&lt;span id="pubdate" class="productdetailbody"&gt;11/2001&lt;/span&gt;
+
* role (to indicate editors and translators)
(ABC-CLIO -- see table structure)
+
* date
 +
* title
 +
* volume
 +
* issue
 +
* page
 +
* issue
 +
* container (a book serves as container for a chapter)
 +
* type (book, newspaper, proceedings)
 +
* edition
 +
* publisher
 +
* place
 +
* location (for urls and physical locations)
 +
* access date (for online items)
  
 +
=== Google Cache ===
 +
[http://microformats.org/wiki?title=citation-examples-markup&action=submit#Google Original Markup]
 +
* url
 +
* retrieved date
  
&lt;div id="pnlPubDate"&gt; &lt;span class="book_options"&gt;Publication Date:&lt;/span&gt; &lt;span id="lblPubDate"&gt;12/30/2005&lt;/span&gt; &lt;/div&gt;
+
=== Greenwood Press featured book ===
(Greenwood, detail page)
+
[http://www.greenwood.com/ greenwood press home page]
 +
[http://microformats.org/wiki/citation-examples-markup#Greenwood_Press_home_page.C2.A0.28http:.2F.2Fwww.greenwood.com.2F.29_featured_book Original Markup]
 +
* title
 +
* subtitle
 +
* author
 +
* ISBN
 +
* Price
 +
* Description
  
 +
=== Greenwood Press product detail page ===
 +
[http://www.greenwood.com/catalog/GR2847.aspx Product detail page]
 +
[http://microformats.org/wiki/citation-examples-markup#Greenwood_Press_Product_detail_page.C2.A0.28http:.2F.2Fwww.greenwood.com.2Fcatalog.2FGR2847.aspx.29 Original Markup]
  
&lt;span class="publicationDate"&gt; Feb 2005 &lt;/span&gt;
+
* Title
(OUP)
+
* subtitle
 +
* authors
 +
* AuthorsNote
 +
* BookCode (internal code system)
 +
* ISBN
 +
* Page
 +
* Publisher
 +
* Publication Date
 +
* Price
 +
* Availability
 +
* MediaType
 +
* categories
 +
* LC Card Number
 +
* LCC Class
 +
* Dewey Class
  
 +
=== IEEE IEEExplore Search Results Markup ===
 +
[http://microformats.org/wiki/citation-examples-markup#IEEE_IEEExplore_Search_Results_Markup Original Markup]
  
&lt;li&gt;Published/Released:&lt;strong&gt; March 1973&lt;/strong&gt;&lt;/li&gt;
+
* title
(Thomson Gale)
+
* authors
</pre>
+
* journal
 +
* issue
 +
* volume
 +
* issue
 +
* pubdate
 +
* page
 +
* Digital Object Identifier (DOI)
 +
* summary
  
=== Volumes: ===
 
<pre>
 
&lt;td width="110" class="productdetailhead"&gt;&lt;span id="volumeslabel" class="productdetailhead"&gt;Volumes&lt;/span&gt;&lt;/td&gt;
 
&lt;td width="180" class="productdetailbody"&gt;&lt;span id="volumes" class="productdetailbody"&gt;1&lt;/span&gt;&lt;/td&gt;
 
(ABC-CLIO)
 
</pre>
 
  
=== ISBN: ===
+
=== Marshall Cavendish product page===
<pre>
+
[http://www.marshallcavendish.com/marshallcavendish/academic/redirector.xml?url=/marshallcavendish/academic/catalogue/books/regionalism_n_regional_security/9812102108.xml product page]
&lt;td class="productdetailhead" width="88"&gt;&lt;span id="ISBNLabel"&gt;ISBN&lt;/span&gt;&lt;/td&gt;
+
[http://microformats.org/wiki/citation-examples-markup#Marshall_Cavendish_product_page.C2.A0.28http:.2F.2Fwww.marshallcavendish.com.2Fmarshallcavendish.2Facademic.2Fredirector.xml.3Furl.3D.2Fmarshallcavendish.2Facademic.2Fcatalogue.2Fbooks.2Fregionalism_n_regional_security.2F9812102108.xml.29 Original Markup]
&lt;td class="productdetailbody"&gt;1-57607-785-3&lt;/td&gt;
 
(ABC-CLIO)
 
  
 +
* ISBN
 +
* Series
 +
* Title
 +
* publisher
 +
* Specifications (dimentions/weight)
 +
* Authors
 +
* Target Audience
 +
* Price
 +
* description
  
&lt;div class="isbn"&gt;0-313-32847-1&lt;/div&gt;
+
=== Ning ===
(Greenwood, homepage)
+
[http://microformats.org/wiki?title=citation-examples-markup&action=submit#Ning.com Original Example]
 +
* title
 +
* publications date
 +
* retrieved on
  
&lt;div id="pnlIsbn"&gt; &lt;span class="book_options"&gt;ISBN:&lt;/span&gt; &lt;span id="lblIsbn"&gt;0-313-32847-1&lt;/span&gt; &lt;/div&gt;
+
=== Oxford University Press (USA) home page ===
(Greenwood, product page)
+
[http://www.us.oup.com/us/?view=usa homepage]
 +
[http://microformats.org/wiki/citation-examples-markup#Oxford_University_Press_.28USA.29_homepage.C2.A0.28http:.2F.2Fwww.us.oup.com.2Fus.2F.3Fview.3Dusa.29 Original Markup]
  
 +
* title
 +
* subTitle
 +
* edition
 +
* byline
 +
* ISBN
 +
* format - hardback
 +
* publication Date
 +
* price
 +
* description
 +
* related
  
&lt;td width="35%"&gt;&lt;font id="title_catalogue_title_font"&gt;ISBN Number&lt;/font&gt;&lt;/td&gt;
+
=== Oxford University Press (USA) product detail page ===
&lt;td width="65%"&gt;&lt;font id="text"&gt;9812102108&lt;/font&gt;&lt;/td&gt;
+
[http://www.us.oup.com/us/catalog/general/subject/HistoryAmerican/ColonialRevolutionary/?view=usa&amp;ci=0195162471#Product_Details Product page]
(Marshall Cavendish)
+
[http://microformats.org/wiki/citation-examples-markup#Oxford_University_Press_.28USA.29_Product_page.C2.A0.28http:.2F.2Fwww.us.oup.com.2Fus.2Fcatalog.2Fgeneral.2Fsubject.2FHistoryAmerican.2FColonialRevolutionary.2F.3Fview.3Dusa.26ci.3D0195162471.23Product_Details.29 Original Markup]
  
 +
* title
 +
* subTitle
 +
* edition
 +
* byline
 +
* image
 +
* isbnNumber
 +
* format - hardback
 +
* pages
 +
* publication Date
 +
* availability
 +
* price
  
&lt;span class="isbnNumber"&gt;0195162471&lt;/span&gt;
+
=== Thomson Gale product detail page ===
(OUP)
+
[http://microformats.org/wiki/citation-examples-markup#Thomson_Gale_product_detail_page Original Markup]
  
 +
* title
 +
* excerp
 +
* Volume
 +
* Publisher
 +
* description
 +
* Published date
 +
* ISBN
 +
* Product number (internal code system)
 +
* Pages
 +
* Shipping Weight
 +
* price
  
&lt;li&gt;ISBN: &lt;strong&gt;0-8103-0100-8&lt;/strong&gt;&lt;/li&gt;
+
=== RFC vCard Example ===
(Thomson Gale)
+
[http://microformats.org/wiki/citation-examples-markup#RFC_vCard_Example Original Markup]
</pre>
 
  
=== Book Edition: ===
+
* refID (HTML @ID)
<pre>
+
* title
&lt;div class="edition"&gt; Revised and Expanded Edition &lt;/div&gt;
+
* publication
(OUP)
+
* title
</pre>
+
* Journal
Added by [[User:Tim White|Tim]]
+
* Volume
 +
* Issue
 +
* page
 +
* pubdate
 +
* RFC ID
  
== RFC vCard Example ==
+
=== University of Virginia ===
<pre><nowiki>
+
[http://microformats.org/wiki?title=citation-examples-markup&action=submit#University_of_Virginia Original Markup]
9.  References
+
* title
 +
* publication date
 +
* retrived on
 +
* location
 +
* organization
  
  [ISO 8601]    ISO 8601:1988 - Data elements and interchange formats -
+
=== W3C XHTML Spec Example ===
                Information interchange - Representation of dates and
+
[http://microformats.org/wiki/citation-examples-markup#W3C_XHTML_Spec_Example Original Markup]
                times - The International Organization for
 
                Standardization, June, 1988.
 
  
  [ISO 8601 TC] ISO 8601, Technical Corrigendum 1 - Data elements and
+
* refID (HTML @ID)
                interchange formats - Information interchange -
+
* URL
                Representation of dates and times - The International
+
* title
                Organization for Standardization, May, 1991.
+
* subtitle
 +
* part (1 of X)
 +
* journal
 +
* authors
 +
* pubdate
 +
* language
 +
* ISO/IEC ID
 +
* RFC ID
  
  [ISO 9070]   ISO 9070, Information Processing - SGML support
+
[http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml1/#refs XHTML1.0 Spec references]
                facilities - Registration Procedures for Public Text
 
                Owner Identifiers, April, 1991.
 
  
  [CCITT E.163] Recommendation E.163 - Numbering Plan for The
+
=== PubMed Medical Journal Example ===
                International Telephone Service, CCITT Blue Book,
+
[http://microformats.org/wiki/citation-examples-markup#PubMed_Medical_Journal_Example Original Markup]
                Fascicle II.2, pp.  128-134, November, 1988.
 
  
  [CCITT X.121] Recommendation X.121 - International Numbering Plan for
+
* abstract
                Public Data Networks, CCITT Blue Book, Fascicle VIII.3,
+
* title
                pp. 317-332, November, 1988.
+
* publisher
 +
* journal
 +
* date of publication
 +
* volume
 +
* issue
 +
* pages
 +
* language
 +
* Review (BOOLEAN YES/NO)
 +
* PubMedID
  
  [CCITT X.520] Recommendation X.520 - The Directory - Selected
+
=== BibDesk Default Template ===
                Attribute Types, November 1988.
+
[[citation-examples-markup#BibDesk_default_HTML_export_example|Original Markup]]
  
  [CCITT X.521] Recommendation X.521 - The Directory - Selected Object
+
This is a pretty simplistic template for a very general app, but it seems to be OK for most BD users.  
                Classes, November 1988.
 
  
  [MIME-DIR]    Howes, T., Smith, M., and F. Dawson, "A MIME Content-
+
* Title
                Type for Directory Information", RFC 2425, September
+
* Author
                1998.
+
* Journal
 +
* Volume
 +
* Pages
 +
* Date
 +
* Url
 +
* Abstract
  
  [RFC 1738]   Berners-Lee, T., Masinter, L., and M. McCahill,
+
=== Wikipedia ===
                "Uniform Resource Locators (URL)", RFC 1738, December
+
[http://wikipedia.org Wikipedia] makes extensive use of bibliographic citations, in particular to point readers to further information sources. There are differing formats depending on Wikipedia's language.
                1994.
 
  
  [RFC 1766]    Alvestrand, H., "Tags for the Identification of
+
Note that Wikipedia values are often links to other pages on Wikipedia (used elsewhere, those URLs might be more canonical, such as to an author or publisher's website).
                Languages", RFC 1766, March 1995.
 
  
  [RFC 1872]    Levinson, E., "The MIME Multipart/Related Content-
+
==== English Wikipedia ====
                type", RFC 1872, December 1995.
+
The kinds of citations used on the site run the full gamut. Here are breakdowns of four categories previously mentioned:
  
  [RFC 2045]   Freed, N., and N. Borenstein, "Multipurpose Internet
+
===== Original Markup =====
                Mail Extensions (MIME) - Part One: Format of Internet
+
[http://microformats.org/wiki?title=citation-examples-markup&action=submit#Wikipedia Original Markup]
                Message Bodies", RFC 2045, November 1996.
+
* id
 +
* title
 +
* url
 +
* Retrieved/Accessed On
 +
* Publication Date
 +
* Journal
  
  [RFC 2046]    Freed, N., and N. Borenstein, "Multipurpose Internet
+
===== Book =====
                Mail Extensions (MIME) - Part Two: Media Types", RFC
+
[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard_feynman#_note-8 Example]
                2046, November 1996.
+
[http://microformats.org/wiki/citation-examples-markup#Wikipedia_Book Example Markup]
  
  [RFC 2047]    Moore, K., "Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions
+
* title
                (MIME) - Part Three: Message Header Extensions for
+
* author
                Non-ASCII Text", RFC 2047, November 1996.
+
* publisher
 +
* year
 +
* ISBN
 +
* url (indirectly via special wikipedia ISBN page)
  
  [RFC 2048]    Freed, N., Klensin, J., and J. Postel, "Multipurpose
+
===== Book Infobox =====
                Internet Mail Extensions (MIME) - Part Four:
 
                Registration Procedures", RFC 2048, January 1997.
 
  
  [RFC 2119]   Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
+
The [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Template:Infobox_Book Book Infobox template] from wikipedia shows a separate schema that is being used for many book pages on wikipedia to mark up a summary box about the book.  
                Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.
 
  
  [RFC 2234]   Crocker, D., and P. Overell, "Augmented BNF for Syntax
+
See also [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Category:Book_templates Other Wikipedia book templates] & [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Category:Citation_templates Wikipedia citation templates].
                Specifications: ABNF", RFC 2234, November 1997.
 
  
   [UNICODE]     "The Unicode Standard - Version 2.0", The Unicode
+
* name 
                Consortium, July 1996.
+
* title_orig   
 +
* translator   
 +
* image         
 +
* image_caption 
 +
* author       
 +
* illustrator    
 +
* cover_artist 
 +
* country       
 +
* language     
 +
* series       
 +
* subject       
 +
* genre         
 +
* publisher     
 +
* release_date 
 +
* english_release_date
 +
* media_type      
 +
* pages         
 +
* isbn         
 +
* preceded_by   
 +
* followed_by   
  
  [VCARD]      Internet Mail Consortium, "vCard - The Electronic
 
                Business Card Version 2.1",
 
                http://www.imc.org/pdi/vcard-21.txt, September 18,
 
                1996.
 
</nowiki></pre>
 
[http://www.faqs.org/rfcs/rfc2426.html vCard RFC]
 
  
== W3C XHTML Spec Example ==
 
<pre><nowiki>
 
<h1><a name="refs" id="refs">E.</a> References</h1>
 
  
<p><strong>This appendix is informative.</strong></p>
+
===== Journal Articles =====
 +
See also:[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Template:Infobox_Journal Wikipedia infobox for journals]
  
<dl>
+
[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/DNA#Citations Example]
<dt><a name="ref-css2" id="ref-css2"><strong>[CSS2]</strong></a></dt>
+
[http://microformats.org/wiki/citation-examples-markup#Wikipedia_Journal_Article Example Markup]
  
<dd>"<cite><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/1998/REC-CSS2-19980512">Cascading Style Sheets, level 2 (CSS2) Specification</a></cite>", B. Bos, H. W. Lie, C. Lilley, I. Jacobs, 12 May 1998.<br />
+
* author (truncated list)
<a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/REC-CSS2">Latest version</a> available at: http://www.w3.org/TR/REC-CSS2</dd>
+
* year
 +
* title
 +
* journal title
 +
* journal number
 +
* page range
 +
* [http://doi.org DOI]
  
<dt><a name="ref-dom" id="ref-dom"><strong>[DOM]</strong></a></dt>
+
===== Court cases =====
 +
[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_leading_legal_cases_in_copyright_law Example]
 +
[http://microformats.org/wiki/citation-examples-markup#Wikipedia_Court_Case Example Markup]
  
<dd>"<cite><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/1998/REC-DOM-Level-1-19981001">Document Object Model (DOM) Level 1 Specification</a></cite>", Lauren Wood <em lang="lt" xml:lang="lt">et al.</em>, 1 October
+
* title
1998.<br />
+
* case number
<a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/REC-DOM-Level-1">Latest version</a> available at: http://www.w3.org/TR/REC-DOM-Level-1</dd>
+
** ''note that legal standards for referring to cases include some inscrutable abbreviations that are probably more detailed than just "case number"''
 +
* court name
 +
* year
 +
* description/abstract
  
<dt><a name="ref-dom2" id="ref-dom2"><strong>[DOM2]</strong></a></dt>
+
===== U.S. Law =====
 +
[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Foreign_Intelligence_Surveillance_Act#endnote_FISA Example]
 +
[http://microformats.org/wiki/citation-examples-markup#Wikipedia_US_Law Example Markup]
  
<dd>"<cite><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2000/REC-DOM-Level-2-Core-20001113">Document Object Model (DOM) Level 2 Core Specification</a></cite>", A. Le&#160;Hors, <em lang="lt" xml:lang="lt">et
+
* title (title number, for example "50" in "50 U.S.C. chapter 36."
al.</em>, 13 November 2000.<br />
+
* chapter title (name, for example "Foreign Intelligence Surveillance" )
<a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/DOM-Level-2-Core">Latest version</a> available at: http://www.w3.org/TR/DOM-Level-2-Core</dd>
+
* chapter number
 +
* section, paragraph, subparagraph numbers (optionally)
  
<dt><a name="ref-html4" id="ref-html4"><strong>[HTML]</strong></a></dt>
+
===== Conference presentations =====
 +
[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Paul_R._Pillar#Conference_presentation_by_Pillar Example]
 +
[http://microformats.org/wiki/citation-examples-markup#Wikipedia_Conference_Presentation Example Markup]
  
<dd>"<cite><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/1999/REC-html401-19991224">HTML 4.01 Specification</a></cite>", D. Raggett, A. Le&#160;Hors, I. Jacobs, 24 December 1999.<br />
+
* title
<a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/html401">Latest version</a> available at: http://www.w3.org/TR/html401</dd>
+
* location
 +
* date
 +
* author (implied - the page is about this person)
  
<dt><a name="ref-posix.1" id="ref-posix.1"><strong>[POSIX.1]</strong></a></dt>
 
  
<dd>"<cite>ISO/IEC 9945-1:1990 Information Technology - Portable Operating System Interface (POSIX) - Part 1: System Application Program Interface (API) [C Language]</cite>", Institute of Electrical
+
===== Historical Sources =====
and Electronics Engineers, Inc, 1990.</dd>
+
[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/American_Civil_War#Primary_sources Example]
 +
[http://microformats.org/wiki/citation-examples-markup#Wikipedia_Primary_Historical_Source Example Markup]
  
<dt><a id="ref-rfc2045" name="ref-rfc2045"><strong>[RFC2045]</strong></a></dt>
+
* source / location
 +
* title
 +
* publisher
 +
* year
 +
* description
 +
* url
  
<dd>"<cite><a href="http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc2045.txt">Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions (MIME) Part One: Format of Internet Message Bodies</a></cite>", N. Freed and N. Borenstein, November
+
===== U.S. Patent =====
1996. Note that this RFC obsoletes RFC1521, RFC1522, and RFC1590.</dd>
+
[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_software_patents Example]
 +
[http://microformats.org/wiki/citation-examples-markup#Wikipedia_U.S._Patent Example Markup]
  
<dt><a name="ref-rfc2046" id="ref-rfc2046"><strong>[RFC2046]</strong></a></dt>
+
* number
  
<dd>"<cite><a href="http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc2046.txt">RFC2046: Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions (MIME) Part Two: Media Types</a></cite>", N. Freed and N. Borenstein, November 1996.<br />
+
==== German Wikipedia ====
Available at <a href="http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc2046.txt">http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc2046.txt</a>. Note that this RFC obsoletes RFC1521, RFC1522, and RFC1590.</dd>
+
* [http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:Literatur citing styles]
  
<dt><a name="ref-rfc2119" id="ref-rfc2119"><strong>[RFC2119]</strong></a></dt>
+
=== EPrints.org ===
  
<dd>"<cite><a href="http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc2119.txt">RFC2119: Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate Requirement Levels</a></cite>", S. Bradner, March 1997.<br />
+
[http://eprints.ecs.soton.ac.uk/12070/ example]
Available at: http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc2119.txt</dd>
+
[http://microformats.org/wiki/citation-examples-markup#EPrints.org_generated_output example markup]
  
<dt><a name="ref-rfc2376" id="ref-rfc2376"><strong>[RFC2376]</strong></a></dt>
+
Based on [http://dublincore.org/documents/dcq-html/ Expressing Dublin Core in HTML/XHTML meta and link elements] and [http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc2731.txt rfc2731], Eprints.org uses the following Dublin Core terms in meta tags in the HTML HEAD of each paper's page:
  
<dd>"<cite><a href="http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc2376.txt">RFC2376: XML Media Types</a></cite>", E. Whitehead, M. Murata, July 1998.<br />
+
* title
This document is obsoleted by [<a href="#ref-rfc3023">RFC3023</a>].<br />
+
* creator (author)
Available at: http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc2376.txt</dd>
+
* description (abstract)
 +
* date
 +
* type
 +
* identifier (a url)
 +
* format
 +
** a strange syntax for the meta content:"pdf http://eprints.ecs.soton.ac.uk/12070/01/Alani-final.pdf"" for the format term...
 +
* fulltext
 +
** this is in a rel-alternate link element. The class is 'fulltext', and the href is the same link as in format, only a valid URL this time.
  
<dt><a name="ref-rfc2396" id="ref-rfc2396"><strong>[RFC2396]</strong></a></dt>
+
In the body of the page, they use the following classes, now no longer DC terms:
 +
*  title
 +
* authors (a flat list with abbreviated names)
 +
* year
 +
* conference
 +
* conference location
  
<dd>"<cite><a href="http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc2396.txt">RFC2396: Uniform Resource Identifiers (URI): Generic Syntax</a></cite>", T. Berners-Lee, R. Fielding, L. Masinter, August 1998.<br />
+
=== Wolfram Mathworld ===
This document updates RFC1738 and RFC1808.<br />
 
Available at: http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc2396.txt</dd>
 
  
<dt><a name="ref-rfc2854" id="ref-rfc2854"><strong>[RFC2854]</strong></a></dt>
+
[http://mathworld.wolfram.com/Quasi-MonteCarloMethod.html example]
 +
[http://microformats.org/wiki/citation-examples-markup#Wolfram_Mathworld example markup]
  
<dd>"<cite><a href="http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc2854.txt">RFC2854: The text/html Media Type</a></cite>", D. Conolly, L. Masinter, June 2000.<br />
+
A book. First citation from the page on "Quasi-Monte Carlo Method". Has very little markup.
Available at: http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc2854.txt</dd>
 
  
<dt><a name="ref-rfc3023" id="ref-rfc3023"><strong>[RFC3023]</strong></a></dt>
+
* authors
 +
* title
 +
* publisher (name and location)
 +
* date (just year)
  
<dd>"<cite><a href="http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc3023.txt">RFC3023: XML Media Types</a></cite>", M. Murata, S. St.Laurent, D. Kohn, January 2001.<br />
+
===LibraryThing===
This document obsoletes [<a href="#ref-rfc2376">RFC2376</a>].<br />
+
*[http://www.librarything.com/] (on-line book cataloguing and reviews
Available at: http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc3023.txt</dd>
+
**e.g. [http://www.librarything.com/catalog.php?view=trealawboy]
  
<dt><a id="ref-rfc3066" name="ref-rfc3066"><strong>[RFC3066]</strong></a></dt>
+
=== Self-Citation Example ===
 +
[http://cbio.mskcc.org/~hoffmann/lifecycles/olv/index.html One example] of an article that includes a statement "please cite as" (a self-description):
 +
 +
* title
 +
* author
 +
* periodical (journal) title
 +
* volume
 +
* issue
 +
* pages
 +
* year
  
<dd>"<a href="http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc3066.txt">Tags for the Identification of Languages</a>", H. Alvestrand, January 2001.<br />
+
=== Citation of an Online Resource ===
Available at: http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc3066.txt</dd>
+
[http://microformats.org/wiki/citation-examples-markup#Citation_of_an_Online_Resource example markup]
  
<dt><a id="ref-rfc3236" name="ref-rfc3236"><strong>[RFC3236]</strong></a></dt>
+
At University of Michigan's [http://www.crlt.umich.edu/publinks/facment_biblio.html  Center for Research on Learning and Teaching] you see citations like this:
  
<dd>"<a href="http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc3236.txt">The 'application/xhtml+xml' Media Type</a>", M. Baker, P. Stark, January 2002.<br />
+
Chief Academic Officers of the Big 12 Universities (2000). Big 12 Faculty Fellowship Program. Retrieved December 20, 2000 from the World Wide Wed: http://www.k-state.edu/provost/academic/big12/big12guide.htm.
Available at: http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc3236.txt</dd>
 
  
<dt><a id="ref-xhtml-mathml" name="ref-xhtml-mathml"><strong>[XHTML+MathML]</strong></a></dt>
+
* title
 +
* publication year
 +
* department/author
 +
* retrieval date
 +
* URL
  
<dd><cite>"<a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/MathML2/dtd/xhtml-math11-f.dtd">XHTML plus Math 1.1 <abbr title="Document Type Definition">DTD</abbr></a></cite>", "A.2 MathML as a DTD Module", Mathematical
 
Markup Language (MathML) Version 2.0. Available at: http://www.w3.org/TR/MathML2/dtd/xhtml-math11-f.dtd</dd>
 
  
<dt><a id="ref-xhtmlmime" name="ref-xhtmlmime"><strong>[XHTMLMIME]</strong></a></dt>
+
[http://www.firstmonday.org/issues/issue12_2/tulloch/index.html "Many, Many Maps," ''First Monday''] contains citations to online resources like this:
  
<dd>"<cite><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2002/NOTE-xhtml-media-types-20020801">XHTML Media Types</a></cite>", Masayasu Ishikawa, 1 August 2002.<br />
+
E.S. Raymond, 2000. “The Cathedral and the Bazaar,” version 3.0, at http://www.catb.org/~esr/writings/cathedral-bazaar/cathedral-bazaar, accessed 18 October 2006.
<a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml-media-types">Latest version</a> available at: http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml-media-types</dd>
 
  
<dt><a id="ref-xhtmlmod" name="ref-xhtmlmod"><strong>[XHTMLMOD]</strong></a></dt>
+
* author
 +
* publication year
 +
* web page title
 +
* URL
 +
* accessed date
  
<dd>"<cite><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2001/REC-xhtml-modularization-20010410">Modularization of XHTML</a></cite>", M. Altheim et al., 10 April 2001.<br />
 
<a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml-modularization">Latest version</a> available at: http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml-modularization</dd>
 
  
<dt><a name="ref-xml" id="ref-xml"><strong>[XML]</strong></a></dt>
+
[http://chnm.gmu.edu/resources/essays/d/44 "The Role of Technology in World History Teaching" by T. Mills Kelly] uses the following citation format for online resources:
  
<dd>"<a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2000/REC-xml-20001006">Extensible Markup Language (XML) 1.0 Specification (Second Edition)</a>", T. Bray, J. Paoli, C. M. Sperberg-McQueen, E. Maler, 6 October
+
''Hitler Historical Museum'', http://www.hitler.org/. Accessed March 21, 2006.
2000.<br />
 
<a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/REC-xml">Latest version</a> available at: http://www.w3.org/TR/REC-xml</dd>
 
  
<dt><a name="ref-xmlns" id="ref-xmlns"><strong>[XMLNS]</strong></a></dt>
+
* title
 +
* URL
 +
* accessed date
  
<dd>"<a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/1999/REC-xml-names-19990114">Namespaces in XML</a>", T. Bray, D. Hollander, A. Layman, 14 January 1999.<br />
+
=== OCLC WorldCat Online ===
XML namespaces provide a simple method for qualifying names used in XML documents by associating them with namespaces identified by URI.<br />
 
<a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/REC-xml-names">Latest version</a> available at: http://www.w3.org/TR/REC-xml-names</dd>
 
  
<dt><a name="ref-xmlc14n" id="ref-xmlc14n"><strong>[XMLC14N]</strong></a></dt>
+
==== Book ====
 +
[http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/41238513 example] [http://microformats.org/wiki/citation-examples-markup#Book example-makrup]
  
<dd>"<a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2001/REC-xml-c14n-20010315">Canonical XML Version 1.0</a>", J. Boyer, 15 March 2001.<br />
+
* title
This document describes a method for generating a physical representation, the canonical form, of an XML document.<br />
+
* type (book)
<a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/xml-c14n">Latest version</a> available at: http://www.w3.org/TR/xml-c14n</dd>
+
* publisher name
</dl>
+
* publisher location
</nowiki></pre>
+
* copyright date
[http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml1/#refs XHTML1.0 Spec references]
+
* isbn
 +
* oclc number
 +
* subjects
 +
* author
 +
* z39.88 (COinS)
  
== CiteProc XHTML Output ==
+
==== Journal ====
 +
[http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/4538259 example]
 +
[http://microformats.org/wiki/citation-examples-markup#Journal example-makrup]
  
The XHTML output for CiteProc[http://xbiblio.sourceforge.net/citeproc.html] wasn't designed per se as a microformat, but is probably not a bad place to start. It is desgined to handle a wide range of content. Here is the APA output:
+
* title
 +
* type (journal)
 +
* publisher
 +
* issn
 +
* oclc number
 +
* subjects
 +
* z39.88 (COinS)
  
<pre><nowiki>
+
====West Midland Bird Club====
<div id="bibliography">
+
Uses OpenCOinS
 +
* [http://www.westmidlandbirdclub.com/biblio/warwks.htm Bibliography page]
 +
* [http://www.westmidlandbirdclub.com/archive/reports1970s.htm Annual Reports]
 +
* [http://www.westmidlandbirdclub.com/biblio/birdnotes/23-5-172.htm 'Bird Notes' article reproduction]
 +
* [http://www.westmidlandbirdclub.com/biblio/bb/73-478.htm 'British Birds' article reproduction]
 +
* [http://www.westmidlandbirdclub.com/biblio/bb/40-184.htm 'British Birds' article reproduction with additional citation]
 +
*[http://www.westmidlandbirdclub.com/biblio/bb/index.htm List of 'British Birds' articles]
  
  <h3>References</h3>
+
Features include:
 +
*title
 +
*author
 +
*date
 +
*price (historic, at time of publication)
 +
*format
 +
*publisher
 +
*number of pages
 +
*ISBN/ ISSN
 +
*product dimensions
 +
*page numbers of article
 +
*image(s)
  
  <p id="Brenner2000a" class="bibref">
+
====Amazon====
    <span class="creator">Brenner, N.</span>
+
Product listings, e.g.
    <span class="date"> (<span class="year">2000</span>) </span>
+
[http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/1590596145/ref=pd_qpt_gw_1/026-5782158-8338825]
    <span class="title">The Urban Question as a Scale Question: Reflections
+
*title
    on Henri Lefebre, Urban Theory and the Politics of Scale, </span>
+
*author
    <span class="container">
+
*price
      <span class="title" style="font-style: italic">International Journal of
+
*format
        Urban and Regional Research, </span>
+
*publisher
      <span class="volume">24</span>
+
*number of pages
      <span class="issue">(2)</span>
+
*language
      <span class="locator">, pp. 361–78</span>
+
*ISBN
      </span>.
+
*product dimensions
    </p>
+
*shipping weighta
 +
*average customer review
 +
*image
 +
*Amazon.com Sales Rank
  
  <p id="NW2000-0207" class="bibref">
+
====ABE====
    <span class="creator">Newsweek</span>
+
Product listings, e.g. [http://www.abebooks.com/servlet/BookDetailsPL?bi=637112345&searchurl=sts%3Dt%26an%3Dmabbett%26y%3D0%26x%3D0]
    <span class="date">
+
*title
      (<span class="year">2000a</span>
+
*author
      <span class="month">, February</span>
+
*ISBN
      <span class="day"> 7</span>)
+
*publisher
    </span>
+
*publication date
    <span class="title">The Grandmas Pay a Visit, </span>
+
*country
    <span class="container">
+
*edition
      <span class="volume">135</span>
+
*condition
      <span class="issue">(6)</span>
+
*whether signed
      <span class="locator">, pp. 45</span>
+
*format/binding
    </span>.
+
*number of pages
  </p>
+
*bookseller
 +
*inventory number
 +
*price
 +
*shipping costs
 +
*quantity
  
  <p id="Veer1996a" class="bibref">
+
===Open URL===
    <span class="creator">van der Veer, P.</span>
 
    <span class="date"><span class="year"> (1996) </span></span>
 
    <span class="title">Riots and Rituals: The Construction of Violence
 
      and Public Space in Hindu Nationalism</span>
 
    <span class="container">, In Brass, P.<span class="role"> (Ed.)</span>.
 
      <span class="title" style="font-style: italic">Riots and Pogroms.</span>
 
      <span class="origin"><span class="place">New York</span>
 
      <span class="publisher">: NYU Press</span></span>
 
      <span class="locator">, pp. 154–76</span>
 
    </span>.
 
  </p>
 
</div>
 
</nowiki></pre>
 
  
== ACM Digital Library Search Result Examples ==
+
* See [[OpenURL_1.0_%28Z39.88%29|OpenURL]]
  
The [http://www.acm.org/dl/ ACM Digital Library] is a heavily used computer science literature database.
+
===Upcoming===
 +
====Open Library====
 +
*[http://www.openlibrary.org/ Open Library]
 +
**<blockquote>There are data fields for every possible bit of information that could exist about each published work.</blockquote> - [http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/magazine/6924022.stm BBC news story 2007-07-31]
  
First, the markup for one entry from the table of contents page for the ACM TACO (Transactions on Architecture and Code Optimization) journal:
+
== External Lists of Citation Examples ==
 +
* http://www.tjameswhite.com/citation-examples.htm
  
<pre>
+
== Implied schema ==
<nowiki>
+
=== List of all properties ===
<td align="left" class="small-text">
+
This are a summation of all the properties in the examples, I have tried to logically group them together.
<a href="citation.cfm?id=1113841.1113842&coll=portal&dl=ACM&idx=1113841&part=periodical&WantType=periodical&title=ACM%20Transactions%20on%20Architecture%20and%20Code%20Optimization%20%28TACO%29&CFID=68451946&CFTOKEN=20517650"class="medium-text" target="_self">
 
<strong>Improving WCET by applying a WC code-positioning optimization </strong>
 
</a>
 
<br>
 
Wankang Zhao, David Whalley, Christopher Healy, Frank Mueller
 
<br>
 
<small> Pages: 335 - 365</small>
 
<br>Full text available:&nbsp;<A HREF="ft_gateway.cfm?id=1113842&type=pdf&coll=portal&dl=ACM&CFID=68451946&CFTOKEN=20517650" target="_blank"><img src="images/pdf_logo.gif" width="16" height="16" hspace="1" alt="pdf format" border="0" align="texttop">Pdf</A>(510&nbsp;KB)
 
  
<div class="smaller-text"><table border="0" cellpadding="0" cellpadding="0"><tr valign="top"><td class="smaller-text" nowrap>Additional Information:</td>
+
* title
<td class="smaller-text"><img src="img/doc_blank.gif" width="1" height="16" alt="" border="0" align="texttop">
+
* subtitle
<A HREF="citation.cfm?id=1113842&jmp=cit&coll=portal&dl=ACM&CFID=68451946&CFTOKEN=20517650#CIT" target="_self">full citation</a>,  
+
* author
<A HREF="citation.cfm?id=1113842&jmp=abstract&coll=portal&dl=ACM&CFID=68451946&CFTOKEN=20517650#abstract" target="_self">abstract</A>,
+
* editor
<A HREF="citation.cfm?id=1113842&jmp=references&coll=portal&dl=ACM&CFID=68451946&CFTOKEN=20517650#references" target="_self"> references</A>,
+
* translator
<A HREF="citation.cfm?id=1113842&jmp=indexterms&coll=portal&dl=ACM&CFID=68451946&CFTOKEN=20517650#indexterms" target="_self"> index terms</A></td></tr></table></div></td><td>&nbsp;</td></tr><tr><td>&nbsp;</td>
+
* image
</nowiki>
+
* date (issued, copyrighted, accessed)
</pre>
+
* language
 +
* description/Summary/abstract
 +
* excerpt
 +
* index terms
 +
* categories (keywords, tags, labels, etc.)
  
The markup for the 'full citation' page is similar, with a little more information about the authors.
+
RELATIONS
 +
* container (publication; periodicals, books, etc.)
 +
* collection (series and so forth)
 +
* event (conference, etc.)
 +
* original (for republished material)
  
Here's the markup from the 'ACM Ref' link, which apparently is how they suggest you format it:
+
LOCATION INFORMATION
<pre>
+
* pages
<nowiki>
+
* volume
Zhao, W., Whalley, D., Healy, C., and Mueller, F. 2005.
+
* series title
Improving WCET by applying a WC code-positioning optimization.
+
* Series
<i>ACM Trans. Archit. Code Optim.</i> 2, 4 (Dec. 2005), 335-365.
+
* edition
DOI= http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1113841.1113842
+
* issue
</nowiki>
+
* publication
</pre>
+
* journal
 +
* part (1 of X)
  
== IEEE IEEExplore Search Results Markup ==
+
PHYSICAL ATTRIBUTES
 +
* Specifications (dimentions/weight)
 +
* Format/type (book, newspaper, proceedings)
  
<pre><nowiki>
+
IDENTIFIERS
<td width="96%" class="bodyCopyBlackLargeSpaced" valign="middle">
+
* ISBN
<strong>On the parallel execution time of tiled loops</strong><br>
+
* LC Card Number
Hogstedt, K.; Carter, L.; Ferrante, J.<br>
+
* LCC Class
<A href='/xpl/RecentIssue.jsp?punumber=71'>Parallel and Distributed Systems, IEEE Transactions on</A><br>
+
* Dewey Class
Volume: 14
+
* URL
 +
* RFC ID
 +
* ISO/IEC ID
 +
* DOI
 +
* PubMedID
  
&nbsp;Issue: 3
+
PUBLISHER
&nbsp;March 2003 <br />
+
* publisher
Page(s):  307- 321<br>
 
Digital Object Identifier 10.1109/TPDS.2003.1189587<br>
 
  
<div id="menu0" style="display:block"><strong>Summary:&nbsp;</strong> Many
 
computationally-intensive programs, such as those for differential equations, spatial
 
interpolation, and dynamic programming, spend a large portion of their execution time in
 
multiply-nested loops that have a regular stencil of data dependences.....</div>
 
</td>
 
  
 +
These are sort of left overs, the are not really about citations, but more about commerce or other things. If they are important we can move them to the above list.
 +
* refID (HTML @ID)
 +
* Reviewed (BOOLEAN YES/NO)
 +
* Availability
 +
* Price
 +
* Shipping Weight
 +
* related
 +
* Product number (internal system code)
 +
* BookCode (internal system code)
 +
* AuthorsNote
 +
* Additional Information
 +
* Target Audience
  
</nowiki>
+
=== Analysis of Examples ===
</pre>
+
With exception of just a few properties, all of the above appeared in atleast two different examples. The following properties were very common in most the example formats:
 +
* title
 +
* subtitle
 +
* author
 +
* publication date
 +
* description
 +
* pages
 +
* ISBN
 +
* publisher
  
== CiteSeer database search results ==
+
== Styles ==
 +
'''This section should be moved and incorporated into [[citation-formats]]'''.
  
The [http://citeseer.ist.psu.edu CiteSeer] database has been another heavily used Computer Science online resource, and it has minimal markup:
 
 
Here's what you see on the main page for a given paper - this information is duplicated everywhere on the page, but this is where it's formatted most like an academic citation:
 
<pre><nowiki>
 
<font size=-1>Yoshio Kataoka, Michael D. Ernst, William G. Griswold, and David Notkin.
 
Automated support for program refactoring using invariants. In ICSM, pages 736-- 743,
 
November 2001. http://citeseer.ist.psu.edu/kataoka01automated.html &nbsp;
 
<a href="http://citeseer.ist.psu.edu/check/1791139">More</a></font><br>
 
 
</nowiki>
 
</pre>
 
 
Clicking on the 'More' link in the above text gets you a page with a listing of all the ways they found it written out as a citation in other papers. This is an example of how they mark up each of those entries:
 
 
<pre><nowiki>
 
<br>
 
Yoshio Kataoka, Michael D. Ernst, William G. Griswold, and David Notkin.
 
<i>Automated support for program refactoring using invariants</i>.
 
In ICSM, pages 736-- 743, November 2001.<br>
 
<br>
 
</nowiki>
 
</pre>
 
 
== CiteULike.org citation listing ==
 
 
[http://www.citeulike.org/ CiteULike] is a shared reference database site that allows organization using tags and ratings. The site imports from many unstructured web resources using mostly screen-scraping plugins (I think --Mike)
 
 
Here is an example of the markup for one article on the main page:
 
<pre><nowiki>
 
<tr><td colspan="2"><ul><li>
 
<a class="title" href="/user/jrw/article/505272">Geometric phases in adiabatic open quantum systems</a>
 
<div class="vague"></div>
 
<div class="vague">by
 
<a class="author" href="/user/jrw/author/Sarandy">Sarandy</a> MS, <a class="author" href="/user/jrw/author/Lidar">Lidar</a> DA</div>
 
<div class="vague">
 
posted to <a class="tag" rel="tag" href="/user/jrw/tag/geometry">geometry</a> <a class="tag" rel="tag" href="/user/jrw/tag/physics">physics</a> <a class="tag" rel="tag" href="/user/jrw/tag/quantum">quantum</a> <a class="tag" rel="tag" href="/user/jrw/tag/quantum-information">quantum-information</a>
 
by <a href="/user/jrw">jrw</a>
 
as <img alt="x"src="http://static.citeulike.org/img/star2.png" />
 
on&nbsp;2006-02-14 18:36:22
 
</div>
 
</li>
 
</ul>
 
</td>
 
</tr>
 
</nowiki></pre>
 
 
And here is markup from the detail page for another publication:
 
 
<pre><nowiki>
 
<div class="content">
 
 
<table border="0"><tr><td width="100%"><h1>T-Coffee: A novel method for fast and accurate multiple sequence alignment.</h1></td><td>
 
</td></tr></table>
 
<div class="vague"><i>J Mol Biol</i>, Vol. 302, No. 1. (8 September 2000), pp. 205-217.</div>
 
<br>
 
 
<h2>Authors</h2>
 
 
<ul><li><span class="black">
 
<a class="author" href="/user/ffranca/author/Notredame">Notredame</a> C</span>,
 
<span class="black">
 
<a class="author" href="/user/ffranca/author/Higgins">Higgins</a> DG</span>,
 
<span class="black">
 
<a class="author" href="/user/ffranca/author/Heringa">Heringa</a> J</span>
 
</li></ul>
 
 
<ul>
 
</ul>
 
 
 
<table border="0" width="100%">
 
<tr>
 
<td valign="top">
 
<h2>Online Article
 
<span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info:ofi/fmt:kev:mtx:journal&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/citeulike.org/citeulike&amp;rft.aufirst=&amp;rft_id=info:doi/10%2e1006%2fjmbi%2e2000%2e4042&amp;rft.spage=205&amp;rft.issue=1&amp;rft.aulast=Notredame&amp;rft.title=J+Mol+Biol&amp;rft.epage=217&amp;rft.issn=0022%2d2836&amp;rft.volume=302&amp;rft.auinit=C&amp;rft.atitle=T%2dCoffee%3a+A+novel+method+for+fast+and+accurate+multiple+sequence+alignment%2e&amp;date=2000-9-8&amp;rft.genre=article&amp;genre=article"></span>
 
 
</h2>
 
</td>
 
</div>
 
</td>
 
</tr>
 
<tr>
 
<td valign="top">
 
<ul>
 
 
<li><span class="black">DOI:</span> <a accesskey="1" href="http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/jmbi.2000.4042" rel="nofollow">View article online</a></li>
 
<li><span class="black">Pubmed:</span> <a accesskey="2" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=10964570" rel="nofollow">View article online</a></li>
 
 
<li><span class="black">Hubmed:</span> <a accesskey="3" href="http://www.hubmed.org/display.cgi?uids=10964570" rel="nofollow">View article online</a></li>
 
 
</ul>
 
 
 
 
</td>
 
</tr>
 
</table>
 
</nowiki>
 
</pre>
 
== Citeproc XHTML output ==
 
 
I'm the author of the [http://xbiblio.sourceforge.net/citeproc.html citeproc] project, which includes a micro-format of sorts (though I never thought of it as such) in its XHTML output mode.  See [http://xbiblio.sourceforge.net/examples/apa-en.html here] for an example.  The difference compared to the bibtex-derived model is that is a) more generic and b) hierachical.
 
 
It would be possible, certainly, to do a flat model if for some reason there was a good technical reason not to go hierarchical (though is there?)
 
 
'''The burden of proof is on *going* hierarchical, rather than a simpler flat solution.  Complexity must be justified, not simplicity.'''
 
 
... but then you need to think outside the BibTeX box in any case. Any model of this sort ought to be able to handle legal citations, magazine articles, patents, etc. etc.; not just a narrow range of BibTeX types.
 
 
'''Per the microformats [[process]], microformats are designed to support existing practice on the Web, anything else should be omitted from at least the first version.'''
 
 
 
== Styles ==
 
 
This does NOT define a format, but instead shows how the format should be displayed. This is something out of the direct scope of this project. CSS styles will handle the look-and-feel of the text, and the author can put it in any order they choose. These links are mentioned for two reasons, one is informative, the other is so we know at least meet the minimum properties that are used in the styles.
 
This does NOT define a format, but instead shows how the format should be displayed. This is something out of the direct scope of this project. CSS styles will handle the look-and-feel of the text, and the author can put it in any order they choose. These links are mentioned for two reasons, one is informative, the other is so we know at least meet the minimum properties that are used in the styles.
  
 
* [http://www.liu.edu/cwis/cwp/library/workshop/citmla.htm MLA Style]
 
* [http://www.liu.edu/cwis/cwp/library/workshop/citmla.htm MLA Style]
 
* [http://www.bu.edu/library/guides/citation.html Chicago, MLA, and APA styles]
 
* [http://www.bu.edu/library/guides/citation.html Chicago, MLA, and APA styles]
 +
* [http://www.english.uiuc.edu/cws/wworkshop/writer_resources/citation_styles/citation_styles.htm Writer's Workshop citation style page] (detailed citation style info)
 
* [http://www.legalbluebook.com/ Blue Book] for legal citations
 
* [http://www.legalbluebook.com/ Blue Book] for legal citations
* [http://www.columbia.edu/cu/cup/cgos/idx_basic.html Columbia University Citation Style] developed for modern internet citations
+
* [http://www.guidetoonlineschools.com/tips-and-tools/mla-apa-chicago-cse The Ultimate Style Guide Resources for MLA, APA, Chicago, and CSE]
 +
 
 +
==Other examples==
 +
*[[citations_in_the_wild]]
 +
*[[blog-quote-examples]]
 +
 
 +
 
 +
==See also==
 +
{{citation-related-pages}}

Latest revision as of 16:21, 18 July 2020


The following examples are real world examples of citations found on the web. Please add to this list. The idea is that we get a solid sample of examples and see what commonalities there are amonst them and try to build this microformat so that it can meet 80% of typical uses.

To add examples: please first add a copy of the HTML source for your example at the citation-examples-markup page, then add a description of the example to this page, with a link to the corresponding section on citation-examples-markup. Thanks!

Citation Mark Up in the Wild

Mark up examples, e.g. including from reference publisher's websites (online catalogs), including ABC-CLIO, Greenwood Press, Marshall Cavendish, Oxford University Press (USA) and Thomson Gale. Examples are broken down and organized by element.

ABC-CLIO Product detail page

ABC-CLIO example ABC-CLIO Original Markup

  • title
  • subtitle
  • author
  • image
  • publication date
  • pages
  • volumes
  • specifications (book dimentions 8.5x11, weight, etc)
  • Format - (Hardback, softback)
  • Price
  • ISBN

ACM Digital Library Search Result Examples

The ACM Digital Library is a heavily used computer science literature database.

The ACM Original Markup contained two examples, a journal article and a conference proceedings article.

Journal article:

  • title
  • authors
  • Pages
  • format (PDF)
  • Additional Information
  • abstract
  • index terms
  • journal
  • issue
  • volume
  • pubdate
  • DOI

Conference Proceedings:

  • title
  • authors
  • author institutions
  • source (conference + proceedings name)
  • page
  • year
  • isbn
  • publisher name & address
  • DOI
  • abstract
  • subject category labels
  • keywords

Amazon.com citation info

This is from a detail page on Amazon.com for a book.

Amazon's Original Markup

  • title
  • author
  • series title
  • page

CiteSeer database search results

The CiteSeer database has been another heavily used Computer Science online resource, and it has minimal markup:

  1. CiteSeer's Original Markup
  2. CiteSeer's Original Example 2
  • author
  • title
  • journal
  • pages
  • publication date
  • URL
  • Accessed On

CiteULike.org citation listing

CiteULike

CiteULike's Original Markup

  • title
  • author
  • subjects
  • image
  • Volume
  • Number
  • publication date
  • page

Links to services with the following IDs embedded in the link

  • Z3988
  • DOI
  • Pubmed
  • Hubmed

CiteProc XHTML Output

CiteProc Original Markup

The XHTML output for CiteProc[1] wasn't designed per se as a microformat, but is probably not a bad place to start. It is designed to handle a wide range of content. Here is the APA output:

  • refID (HTML @ID)
  • creator
  • role (to indicate editors and translators)
  • date
  • title
  • volume
  • issue
  • page
  • issue
  • container (a book serves as container for a chapter)
  • type (book, newspaper, proceedings)
  • edition
  • publisher
  • place
  • location (for urls and physical locations)
  • access date (for online items)

Google Cache

Original Markup

  • url
  • retrieved date

Greenwood Press featured book

greenwood press home page Original Markup

  • title
  • subtitle
  • author
  • ISBN
  • Price
  • Description

Greenwood Press product detail page

Product detail page Original Markup

  • Title
  • subtitle
  • authors
  • AuthorsNote
  • BookCode (internal code system)
  • ISBN
  • Page
  • Publisher
  • Publication Date
  • Price
  • Availability
  • MediaType
  • categories
  • LC Card Number
  • LCC Class
  • Dewey Class

IEEE IEEExplore Search Results Markup

Original Markup

  • title
  • authors
  • journal
  • issue
  • volume
  • issue
  • pubdate
  • page
  • Digital Object Identifier (DOI)
  • summary


Marshall Cavendish product page

product page Original Markup

  • ISBN
  • Series
  • Title
  • publisher
  • Specifications (dimentions/weight)
  • Authors
  • Target Audience
  • Price
  • description

Ning

Original Example

  • title
  • publications date
  • retrieved on

Oxford University Press (USA) home page

homepage Original Markup

  • title
  • subTitle
  • edition
  • byline
  • ISBN
  • format - hardback
  • publication Date
  • price
  • description
  • related

Oxford University Press (USA) product detail page

Product page

Original Markup

  • title
  • subTitle
  • edition
  • byline
  • image
  • isbnNumber
  • format - hardback
  • pages
  • publication Date
  • availability
  • price

Thomson Gale product detail page

Original Markup

  • title
  • excerp
  • Volume
  • Publisher
  • description
  • Published date
  • ISBN
  • Product number (internal code system)
  • Pages
  • Shipping Weight
  • price

RFC vCard Example

Original Markup

  • refID (HTML @ID)
  • title
  • publication
  • title
  • Journal
  • Volume
  • Issue
  • page
  • pubdate
  • RFC ID

University of Virginia

Original Markup

  • title
  • publication date
  • retrived on
  • location
  • organization

W3C XHTML Spec Example

Original Markup

  • refID (HTML @ID)
  • URL
  • title
  • subtitle
  • part (1 of X)
  • journal
  • authors
  • pubdate
  • language
  • ISO/IEC ID
  • RFC ID

XHTML1.0 Spec references

PubMed Medical Journal Example

Original Markup

  • abstract
  • title
  • publisher
  • journal
  • date of publication
  • volume
  • issue
  • pages
  • language
  • Review (BOOLEAN YES/NO)
  • PubMedID

BibDesk Default Template

Original Markup

This is a pretty simplistic template for a very general app, but it seems to be OK for most BD users.

  • Title
  • Author
  • Journal
  • Volume
  • Pages
  • Date
  • Url
  • Abstract

Wikipedia

Wikipedia makes extensive use of bibliographic citations, in particular to point readers to further information sources. There are differing formats depending on Wikipedia's language.

Note that Wikipedia values are often links to other pages on Wikipedia (used elsewhere, those URLs might be more canonical, such as to an author or publisher's website).

English Wikipedia

The kinds of citations used on the site run the full gamut. Here are breakdowns of four categories previously mentioned:

Original Markup

Original Markup

  • id
  • title
  • url
  • Retrieved/Accessed On
  • Publication Date
  • Journal
Book

Example Example Markup

  • title
  • author
  • publisher
  • year
  • ISBN
  • url (indirectly via special wikipedia ISBN page)
Book Infobox

The Book Infobox template from wikipedia shows a separate schema that is being used for many book pages on wikipedia to mark up a summary box about the book.

See also Other Wikipedia book templates & Wikipedia citation templates.

  • name
  • title_orig
  • translator
  • image
  • image_caption
  • author
  • illustrator
  • cover_artist
  • country
  • language
  • series
  • subject
  • genre
  • publisher
  • release_date
  • english_release_date
  • media_type
  • pages
  • isbn
  • preceded_by
  • followed_by


Journal Articles

See also:Wikipedia infobox for journals

Example Example Markup

  • author (truncated list)
  • year
  • title
  • journal title
  • journal number
  • page range
  • DOI
Court cases

Example Example Markup

  • title
  • case number
    • note that legal standards for referring to cases include some inscrutable abbreviations that are probably more detailed than just "case number"
  • court name
  • year
  • description/abstract
U.S. Law

Example Example Markup

  • title (title number, for example "50" in "50 U.S.C. chapter 36."
  • chapter title (name, for example "Foreign Intelligence Surveillance" )
  • chapter number
  • section, paragraph, subparagraph numbers (optionally)
Conference presentations

Example Example Markup

  • title
  • location
  • date
  • author (implied - the page is about this person)


Historical Sources

Example Example Markup

  • source / location
  • title
  • publisher
  • year
  • description
  • url
U.S. Patent

Example Example Markup

  • number

German Wikipedia

EPrints.org

example example markup

Based on Expressing Dublin Core in HTML/XHTML meta and link elements and rfc2731, Eprints.org uses the following Dublin Core terms in meta tags in the HTML HEAD of each paper's page:

  • title
  • creator (author)
  • description (abstract)
  • date
  • type
  • identifier (a url)
  • format
  • fulltext
    • this is in a rel-alternate link element. The class is 'fulltext', and the href is the same link as in format, only a valid URL this time.

In the body of the page, they use the following classes, now no longer DC terms:

  • title
  • authors (a flat list with abbreviated names)
  • year
  • conference
  • conference location

Wolfram Mathworld

example example markup

A book. First citation from the page on "Quasi-Monte Carlo Method". Has very little markup.

  • authors
  • title
  • publisher (name and location)
  • date (just year)

LibraryThing

  • [2] (on-line book cataloguing and reviews

Self-Citation Example

One example of an article that includes a statement "please cite as" (a self-description):

  • title
  • author
  • periodical (journal) title
  • volume
  • issue
  • pages
  • year

Citation of an Online Resource

example markup

At University of Michigan's Center for Research on Learning and Teaching you see citations like this:

Chief Academic Officers of the Big 12 Universities (2000). Big 12 Faculty Fellowship Program. Retrieved December 20, 2000 from the World Wide Wed: http://www.k-state.edu/provost/academic/big12/big12guide.htm.

  • title
  • publication year
  • department/author
  • retrieval date
  • URL


"Many, Many Maps," First Monday contains citations to online resources like this:

E.S. Raymond, 2000. “The Cathedral and the Bazaar,” version 3.0, at http://www.catb.org/~esr/writings/cathedral-bazaar/cathedral-bazaar, accessed 18 October 2006.

  • author
  • publication year
  • web page title
  • URL
  • accessed date


"The Role of Technology in World History Teaching" by T. Mills Kelly uses the following citation format for online resources:

Hitler Historical Museum, http://www.hitler.org/. Accessed March 21, 2006.

  • title
  • URL
  • accessed date

OCLC WorldCat Online

Book

example example-makrup

  • title
  • type (book)
  • publisher name
  • publisher location
  • copyright date
  • isbn
  • oclc number
  • subjects
  • author
  • z39.88 (COinS)

Journal

example example-makrup

  • title
  • type (journal)
  • publisher
  • issn
  • oclc number
  • subjects
  • z39.88 (COinS)

West Midland Bird Club

Uses OpenCOinS

Features include:

  • title
  • author
  • date
  • price (historic, at time of publication)
  • format
  • publisher
  • number of pages
  • ISBN/ ISSN
  • product dimensions
  • page numbers of article
  • image(s)

Amazon

Product listings, e.g. [4]

  • title
  • author
  • price
  • format
  • publisher
  • number of pages
  • language
  • ISBN
  • product dimensions
  • shipping weighta
  • average customer review
  • image
  • Amazon.com Sales Rank

ABE

Product listings, e.g. [5]

  • title
  • author
  • ISBN
  • publisher
  • publication date
  • country
  • edition
  • condition
  • whether signed
  • format/binding
  • number of pages
  • bookseller
  • inventory number
  • price
  • shipping costs
  • quantity

Open URL

Upcoming

Open Library

External Lists of Citation Examples

Implied schema

List of all properties

This are a summation of all the properties in the examples, I have tried to logically group them together.

  • title
  • subtitle
  • author
  • editor
  • translator
  • image
  • date (issued, copyrighted, accessed)
  • language
  • description/Summary/abstract
  • excerpt
  • index terms
  • categories (keywords, tags, labels, etc.)

RELATIONS

  • container (publication; periodicals, books, etc.)
  • collection (series and so forth)
  • event (conference, etc.)
  • original (for republished material)

LOCATION INFORMATION

  • pages
  • volume
  • series title
  • Series
  • edition
  • issue
  • publication
  • journal
  • part (1 of X)

PHYSICAL ATTRIBUTES

  • Specifications (dimentions/weight)
  • Format/type (book, newspaper, proceedings)

IDENTIFIERS

  • ISBN
  • LC Card Number
  • LCC Class
  • Dewey Class
  • URL
  • RFC ID
  • ISO/IEC ID
  • DOI
  • PubMedID

PUBLISHER

  • publisher


These are sort of left overs, the are not really about citations, but more about commerce or other things. If they are important we can move them to the above list.

  • refID (HTML @ID)
  • Reviewed (BOOLEAN YES/NO)
  • Availability
  • Price
  • Shipping Weight
  • related
  • Product number (internal system code)
  • BookCode (internal system code)
  • AuthorsNote
  • Additional Information
  • Target Audience

Analysis of Examples

With exception of just a few properties, all of the above appeared in atleast two different examples. The following properties were very common in most the example formats:

  • title
  • subtitle
  • author
  • publication date
  • description
  • pages
  • ISBN
  • publisher

Styles

This section should be moved and incorporated into Citation Formats.

This does NOT define a format, but instead shows how the format should be displayed. This is something out of the direct scope of this project. CSS styles will handle the look-and-feel of the text, and the author can put it in any order they choose. These links are mentioned for two reasons, one is informative, the other is so we know at least meet the minimum properties that are used in the styles.

Other examples


See also