hCard is a simple, open, distributed format for representing people, companies, organizations, and places, using a 1:1 representation of the properties and values of the vCard standard (RFC2426) in semantic XHTML. hCard is one of several open microformat standards suitable for embedding in (X)HTML, Atom, RSS, and arbitrary XML.
Want to get started with writing an hCard? Use the hCard creator to write up some contact information and publish it, or follow the hCard authoring tips to add hCard markup to your current contact page.
- 1 hCard
- 1.1 Specification
- 1.2 Introduction
- 1.3 Semantic XHTML Design Principles
- 1.4 Format
- 1.4.1 In General
- 1.4.2 More Semantic Equivalents
- 1.4.3 Singular vs. Plural Properties
- 1.4.4 Human vs. Machine readable
- 1.4.5 Value excerpting
- 1.4.6 Property Exceptions
- 1.4.7 Organization Contact Info
- 1.4.8 Implied "n" Optimization
- 1.4.9 Implied "nickname" Optimization
- 1.4.10 Implied "organization-name" Optimization
- 1.4.11 Tags as Categories
- 1.4.12 Root Class Name
- 1.4.13 Property List
- 1.4.14 XMDP Profile
- 1.4.15 Parsing Details
- 1.5 Examples
- 1.6 Examples in the wild
- 1.7 Implementations
- 1.8 Additional Applications
- 1.9 References
- 1.10 Related Pages
- 1.11 Further Reading
This specification is (C) 2004-2022 by the authors. However, the authors intend to submit (or already have submitted, see details in the spec) this specification to a standards body with a liberal copyright/licensing policy such as the GMPG, IETF, and/or W3C. Anyone wishing to contribute should read their copyright principles, policies and licenses (e.g. the GMPG Principles) and agree to them, including licensing of all contributions under all required licenses (e.g. CC-by 1.0 and later), before contributing.
Inspiration and Acknowledgments
Thanks to: my good friend Vadim who introduced me to vCard many years ago, and if I'd only paid more attention then, perhaps I could have helped a lot of people avoid wasting a lot of time reinventing various standards wheels.
The vCard standard (RFC2426), has been broadly interoperably implemented (e.g. Apple's "Address Book" application built into MacOSX).
In addition, many bloggers identify themselves by name and discuss their friends and family. With just a tad bit of structure, bloggers can discuss people in their blog(s) in such a way that spiders and other aggregators can retrieve this information, automatically convert them to vCards, and use them in any vCard application or service.
This specification introduces the hCard format, which uses a 1:1 representation of the properties and values of the aforementioned vCard standard, in semantic XHTML. Bloggers can both embed hCards directly in their web pages, and style them with CSS to make them appear as desired. In addition, hCard enables applications to retrieve information directly from web pages without having to reference a separate file.
Use the hCard creator and copy the HTML code it generates to your blog or website to publish your contact info.
Semantic XHTML Design Principles
Note: the Semantic XHTML Design Principles were written primarily within the context of developing hCard and hCalendar, thus it may be easier to understand these principles in the context of the hCard design methodology (i.e. read that first). Tantek
XHTML is built on XML, and thus XHTML based formats can be used not only for convenient display presentation, but also for general purpose data exchange. In many ways, XHTML based formats exemplify the best of both HTML and XML worlds. However, when building XHTML based formats, it helps to have a guiding set of principles.
- Reuse the schema (names, objects, properties, values, types, hierarchies, constraints) as much as possible from pre-existing, established, well-supported standards by reference. Avoid restating constraints expressed in the source standard. Informative mentions are ok.
- For types with multiple components, use nested elements with class names equivalent to the names of the components.
- Plural components are made singular, and thus multiple nested elements are used to represent multiple text values that are comma-delimited.
- Use the most accurately precise semantic XHTML building block for each object etc.
- Otherwise use a generic structural element (e.g.
<div>), or the appropriate contextual element (e.g. an
- Use class names based on names from the original schema, unless the semantic XHTML building block precisely represents that part of the original schema. If names in the source schema are case-insensitive, then use an all lowercase equivalent. Components names implicit in prose (rather than explicit in the defined schema) should also use lowercase equivalents for ease of use. Spaces in component names become dash '-' characters.
- Finally, if the format of the data according to the original schema is too long and/or not human-friendly, use
<abbr>instead of a generic structural element, and place the literal data into the 'title' attribute (where abbr expansions go), and the more brief and human readable equivalent into the element itself. Further informative explanation of this use of
<abbr>: Human vs. ISO8601 dates problem solved
The vCard standard (RFC2426) forms the basis of hCard.
The basic format of hCard is to use vCard object/property names in lower-case for class names, and to map the nesting of vCard objects directly into nested XHTML elements.
More Semantic Equivalents
For some properties there are HTML elements which better match and convey their semantics. The following properties SHOULD be encoded with the following (X)HTML:
URLin vCard becomes
<a class="url" href="...">...</a>inside the element with
<a class="email" href="mailto:...">...</a>
PHOTOin vCard becomes
<img class="photo" src="..." alt="Photo of ..." />or
<object class="photo" data="..." type="...">Photo of ...</object>
UIDin vCard simply becomes another semantic applied to a specific URL (or EMAIL) for an hCard.
Singular vs. Plural Properties
For properties which are singular (e.g. "N" and "FN"), the first descendant element with that class should take effect, any others being ignored.
For properties which can be plural (e.g. "TEL"), each class instance should create a instance of that property.
Singular properties: "FN", "N", "BDAY", "TZ", "GEO", "SORT-STRING", "UID", "CLASS".
All other properties are plural. This list has been derived by analyzing the semantics of the individual properties in vCard RFC2426 and determining logically that they MUST be singular per their semantics. See hcard-singular-properties for explanations.
Plural Properties Singularized
Since plural property names become their singular equivalents, even if the original plural property permitted only a single value with multiple components, those multiple components are represented each with their own singularly named property and the the property is effectively multivalued and subject to the above treatment of multivalued properties.
Human vs. Machine readable
<abbr> element is used for a property, then the '
title' attribute of the
<abbr> element is the value of the property, instead of the contents of the element, which instead provide a human presentable version of the value.
<a> element is used for one or more properties, it must be treated as follows:
- For the "PHOTO" property and any other property that takes a URL as its value, the
href="..."attribute provides the property value.
- For other properties, the element's content is the value of the property.
<img> element is used for one or more properties, it must be treated as follows:
- For the "PHOTO" property and any other property that takes a URL as its value, the
src="..."attribute provides the property value.
- For other properties, the
alt' attribute is the value of the property.
<object> element is used for one or more properties, it must be treated as follows:
- For the "PHOTO" property and any other property that takes a URL as its value, the
data="..."attribute provides the property value.
- For other properties, the element's content is the value of the property.
Sometimes only part of an element which is the equivalent for a property should be used for the value of the property. This typically occurs when a property has a subtype, like TEL. For this purpose, the special class name "
value" is introduced to excerpt out the subset of the element that is the value of the property. E.g. here is an hCard fragment for marking up a home phone number:
<span class="tel"> <span class="type">home</span>: <span class="value">+1.415.555.1212</span> </span>
This hCard fragment could be displayed as:
vCard has several properties which either do not make sense on, or are already implied within the context of a web page. This section explains what to (not) do with them.
- NAME, PROFILE, SOURCE, PRODID, VERSION properties as defined in Sections 2.1.2, 2.1.3, 2.1.4, 3.6.3, 3.6.9 of RFC 2426. Content publishers MUST NOT use these properties in their hCards, and as such, hCard consumers/parsers MUST IGNORE these properties if they are found within an hCard. Instead. hCard to vCard converters SHOULD use the title of the page where the hCard is found (e.g. the
<title>element in (X)HTML documents) to construct the NAME property, MAY output a PROFILE value of "
VCARD" per RFC 2426, SHOULD use the URL of the page where the hCard is found to construct the SOURCE property (e.g. perhaps as a parameter to a URL/service that converts hCards to vCards), for an output vCard stream (e.g. a .vcf file). Only services/applications that output actual vCards should write the PRODID property, with the product identifier for said service/application. Similarly only such services/applications should write the VERSION property, with the value "3.0" (without quotes) per RFC2426 Section 3.6.9.
Organization Contact Info
If the "FN" and "ORG" properties have the exact same value (typically because they are set on the same element, e.g. class="fn org"), then the hCard represents contact information for a company or organization and should be treated as such. In this case the author MUST also NOT set the "N" property, or set it (and any sub-properties) explicitly to the empty string "". Thus parsers should handle the missing "N" property in this case by implying empty values for all the "N" sub-properties.
Implied "n" Optimization
Although vCard requires that the "N" property be present, the authors of the vCard specification (RFC 2426) themselves do not include "N" properties in their vCards near the end of the spec (p.38). This apparent contradiction can be resolved by simply allowing the "FN" property to imply "N" property values in typical cases provided in the spec. We do so explicitly in hCard.
If "FN" and "ORG" are not the same (see previous section), and the value of the "FN" property is exactly two words (separated by whitespace), and there is no explicit "N" property, then the "N" property is inferred from the "FN" property. For "FN"s with either one word see below, and for three or more, the author MUST explicitly markup the "N", except for the organization contact info case, see above for that.
- The content of "FN" is broken into two "words" separated by whitespace.
- The first word of the "FN" is interpreted as the "given-name" for the "N" property.
- The second/last word of the "FN" is interpreted as the "family-name" for the "N" property.
- Exception: If the first word ends in a "," comma OR if the second word is a single character (optionally followed by a period "."), then the first word (minus the comma at the end if any) is interpreted as the "family-name" and the second word is interpreted as the "given-name".
This allows simplification in the typical case of people stating:
- given-name (space) family-name
- family-name (comma) given-name
- family-name (comma) given-name-first-initial
- family-name (space) given-name-first-initial (optional period)
Implied "nickname" Optimization
Due to the prevalence of the use of nicknames/handles/usernames on the Web in actual content published on the Web (e.g. authors of reviews), hCard also has an implied "nickname" optimization to handle this.
Similar to the implied "n" optimization, if "FN" and "ORG" are not the same, and the value of the "FN" property is exactly one word, and there is no explicit "N" property, then:
- The content of the "FN" is treated as a "nickname" property value.
- Parsers should handle the missing "N" property by implying empty values for all the "N" sub-properties.
Note: the hCard may have additional explicit "nickname" property values in addition to the implied nickname.
Implied "organization-name" Optimization
The "ORG" property has two subproperties, organization-name and organization-unit. Very often authors only publish the organization-name. Thus if an "ORG" property has no "organization-name" inside it, then its entire contents MUST be treated as the "organization-name".
Tags as Categories
Categories in hCard can optionally be represented by tags with rel-tag. When a category property is a rel-tag, the tag (as defined by rel-tag) is used for that category.
Root Class Name
The root class name for an hCard is "vcard".
This is the list of properties (and subproperties, in parentheses, like this) in hCard, taken from vCard:
- fn, n (family-name, given-name, additional-name, honorific-prefix, honorific-suffix), nickname, sort-string
- url, email (type, value), tel (type, value)
- adr (post-office-box, extended-address, street-address, locality, region, postal-code, country-name, type, value), label
- geo (latitude, longitude), tz
- photo, logo, sound, bday
- title, role, org (organization-name, organization-unit)
- category, note
- class, key, mailer, uid, rev
type subproperty values
The 'type' subproperty in particular takes different values depending on which property it is a subproperty of. These 'type' subproperty values are case-INSENSITIVE, meaning "Home" is the same as "home", as well as multivalued, e.g. a tel can be home and preferred:
<span class="tel"><span class="type">Home</span> (<span class="type">pref</span>erred): <span class="value">+1.415.555.1212</span> </span>
The following lists are informative. See RFC 2426 sections 3.2.1 ADR, 3.3.1 TEL, and 3.3.2 EMAIL respectively for normative type values. They are repeated here for convenience. Default type subproperty value(s) is(are) first in each list and indicated in ALL CAPS. types may be multivalued.
- adr type: INTL, POSTAL, PARCEL, WORK, dom, home, pref
- tel type: VOICE, home, msg, work, pref, fax, cell, video, pager, bbs, modem, car, isdn, pcs
- email type: INTERNET, x400, pref, "other IANA registered address types"
See hCard parsing.
This section is informative.
Here is a sample vCard:
BEGIN:VCARD VERSION:3.0 N:Çelik;Tantek FN:Tantek Çelik URL:http://tantek.com/ ORG:Technorati END:VCARD
and an equivalent in hCard with various elements optimized appropriately. See hCard Example 1 for the derivation.
<div class="vcard"> <a class="url fn" href="http://tantek.com/">Tantek Çelik</a> <div class="org">Technorati</div> </div>
This hCard might be displayed as:
Note: The version information is unnecessary in hCard markup directly since the version will be defined by the profile of hCard that is used/referred to in the 'profile' attribute of the <head> element.
See hCard examples for more examples, including all examples from vCard RFC 2426 converted into hCard.
Examples in the wild
This section is informative.
The following sites have published hCards, and thus are a great place to start for anyone looking for examples "in the wild" to try parsing, indexing, organizing etc. If you have an hCard on your own page, feel free to add it to the top of this list. Once the list grows too big, we'll make a separate wiki page.
Please add new examples to this section.
- Left Logic uses hCard for embedded contact information.
- Inga Scholes uses hCard for contact information in the sidebar.
- Lussumo uses hCards on user profile pages in its open-source Vanilla Discussions Forum software.
- Ron Kok uses hCards to mark-up the names and URLs of commentors on his blog. He also uses hCards in combination with XFN in his blogposts to refer to friends, and has an hCard for himself in the footer of his blog.
- The West Midland Bird Club in the English Midlands uses hCard on its home page, events diary and contact pages. The former is a page footer which is gradually being rolled out across the whole site.
- Tagg Media uses hCard for contact information and provide link to vCard download in the contact section.
- Thomas A Anderson in Wikipedia is now marked up with hCard.
- d.Construct 2006 Backnetwork uses hCards for conference delegates (and provides the markup so that delegates can copy and paste cards into their own sites).
- Brown University now uses hCard on the front page
- Dunks at Wide Blue Yonder Web Design has added hCard markup on his contact page and is looking to implement it on all past & future contact pages for clients.
- Southampton Rubber Stamp Company now has hCard markup with a vCard download link on every page.
- Barefoot Ceramics paint your own pottery studio (in Newport, South Wales) has added hCard markup to its "Find" page and other address instances. They hopes to implement hCalendar event lists as soon as an ics to hCalendar PHP class can be found or written.
- IBM is embracing microformats. The IBM Employee Directory now returns hcards in its query results. Also see the Shortcuts Podcast.
- David Singleton has added a hCard to his blog.
- Kriss Watt has hidden an hCard his blog footer.
- The Street Theatre (Canberra, Australia) has added hCard markup to its Contact Us page. hCalendar markup will soon be added for all of our performances.
- Henrich C. Pöhls has marked up his about page using hcard, including his PGP-Key that is stored in an abbr title, using class=key.
- Yalf Webentwicklung has contact information available as hCard (and vCard).
- Jeffrey Zeldman. Jeffrey Zeldman has marked up his about page using hcard.
- Where Are You Camping. hCards for all members and camps, employing the include pattern as well. AFAIK this is the first Burning Man related microformats implementation, not to mention addresses in Black Rock City.
- Clackmannanshire Council . hCard is implemented for all contact details across the site, and for specific individuals such as elected members (Councillors).
- Web Directions . hCard is used as contact information for the conference, while speakers are marked up with hCard.
- MarkThisDate.com . An hCard is implemented on our contactform. For our calendars hCalendars will follow as soon as possible.
- MSI Systems Integrators has its "Contact MSI" page encoded with hCards.
- Corporate website of Coolblue BV. hCards were implemented in both the footer of each page, and in the "News" section for press contact information.
- Official site of Besançon (France) uses hCard for each page concerning the small towns surrounding Besançon.
- d.Construct 2006 conference speakers list is implemented using hCards.
- Yahoo Local now supports hCards for business and places in the search results
- Learning the World has hcard information on the imprint, alas we didn't succeed to mark-up the work phone and fax numbers properly.
- The F’parade website uses hcard, though I didn't find a type to distinguish mobile and landline phone numbers.
- Miranet Webdesign have added a hcard to their 'contact' page
- Ben Buchanan has added a vCard to the 'About' page on The 200ok Weblog
- Radiant Core has their contact information available in hCard.
- Mike Rumble has uploaded his hCard.
- Southern Arkansas University has its contact footer encoded as hCard
- University of Alabama at Birmingham has its contact footer encoded as hCard
- Capital University has contact footer and bloggers' names encoded as hCard. Also, all page-specific contact information is encoded as hCards (see Admissions page for an example)
- UAB School of Health Professions uses hCard in its contact footer
- Stephen Stewart has his hCard on the front page of his weblog ('You are here' section)
- Frances Berriman has a hidden vCard in the footers of her website.
- CandleScience Candle Supply added a hidden hcard sitewide.
- Direction uses hCard for contact information.
- AudioBank uses hCard to display member informations.
- @media speakers are marked up with hCard (photos depend on BASE tag support which makes this a good test case)
- Doug Ransom uses hCard for his financial advisory practice.
- ncl.rb uses hCard for contact information.
- Snow Interactive uses hCard for contact information.
- Flickr now supports hCard and XFN on profile pages. See screenshot of Flickr UI in Flock browser using Flocktails extension - March 17th 2006.
- Contact information for the Ndiyo project
- Pixel Envy uses hCard for contact information on every page
- Klaus Hartl uses hCard in the sidebar for contact information (maybe easier to parse through delivering xhtml as xml).
- Charl van Niekerk's hCard
- BillyBLOGirlardo uses hCard for contact information.
- Hicksdesign uses hCard for contact information.
- http://www.gr0w.com/articles/press/growsearch_launched_press_release/ - hCard in a press release for the press contact info
- http://www.redmonk.com/cote/archives/2006/03/testing_out_mic.html - hCard with explanation
- it's my island, personal blog, hcard on the About the Writer page. Andy Ciordia
- Window on Woking, a local community site in the UK, uses hCard in the homepage of each member organisation and local Councillor.
- ChunkySoup.net has redesigned using hAtom 0.1 and hCards on the entire site -- by Chris Casciano
- 30 Boxes,a social calendar application and digital lifestyle aggregator, automatically creates an hcard for you with your account. It is found under Settings > Syndication.
- Nearwhere.com allow you to put an hcard on an interactive map.
- Brent Ozar added a contact page hCard.
- Keri Henare has rewritten his contact page hCard. Now using
<img>for photo. (Thanks Brian Suda for updating the vCard converter)
- Michael Raichelson had an hCard on his contact page before SXSW, but never thought to add it here until Tantek requested it.
- Lindsey Simon has added an hCard to his website as per Tantek's SXSW request for folks to try it
- David Gagne has an hCard in his sidebar.
- Churchzip.com/map and Skiwhere.com/map, provide churches, hotels, and ski resorts on the same maps. Locations are formatted as hcards.
- All IQ Directory Solutions Yellow Pages web portals use hCard markup on listings. For example Cambodia Yellow Pages and Malaysia Super Pages
- Ning's cloneable Group app uses fuzzy matching to map custom fields to hCard markup on its profile pages.
- Chris Messina' ClaimID hCard
- Chris Messina' hCard
- Flock About
- Agenda: W3C Technical Plenary Day, March 1 2006 has hCard and hCalendar markup. (original here).
- GrowSearch Launched (Press Release) uses an hCard to provide Press Contact Point.
- The National Arbor Day Foundation has started using hCards for their upcoming conferences.
- The Multipack has numerous hCards, especially on the members page, as well as the next meeting information.
- Justin McDowell used an hCard when referring to a person in his blog post
- Dave Cardwell has included his hCard in his Curriculum Vitae.
- Shaun Shull has written a great post on How Microformats Affect SEO, and has included his hCard as one of the examples.
- Jesse Skinner has written a simple tutorial with examples
- 2006 W3C Technical Plenary Week has marked up the venue, contacts, and program committee members all with hCard.
- AVF-Nexus have a hCard on their contact page - (by Creation")
- Andrew White posted his hCard and blogged about it.
- Oleg "2sheds" Kourapov in his blog (X2V) has turned personal profile into hCard (X2V) and his blogroll - into combination XFN/hCards (X2V)
- Approved Design Consultancy have a hCard on their contact page as well as on their people section - (by Creation")
- Ben Buchanan and Colin Morris have implemented hCards and vCards for the Griffith University online phone book. Eg. Ben's vCard and Colin's vCard
- WWF-Australia contact details page
- Pete Prodoehl used the hCard format on his Contact page and his Portfolio
- amette uses the hCard format in a module of his TikiWiki powered blog
- Oren Sreebny has an hcard on his blog main index template
- Patrick Tufts has an hCard on his homepage.
- Mathias Kolehmainen and Jamie Taylor have hCards on their weblog.
- Barnaby James has a hCard on his weblog.
- ESA Education Uses hCards for their 100+ schools and each of the individual school sites.
- Ralph Brandi has added an hCard to the sidebar of his weblog as a result of Tantek Çelik's portion of the Microformats presentation at SXSW 2006.
- Pierce College -- community college directory uses hCard on all individual directory entries.
- the Institutional Web Management Workshop 2006 have marked up all their speakers with hCard.
- http://wikitravel.org/en/Singapore/Sentosa. Wikitravel is experimenting with hcard on its travel guides. This guide uses hcard for all its business listings. More info on http://wikitravel.org/en/Wikitravel_talk:Listings.
- Musik-Erber uses to present contact information at the sidebar
- Colin D. Devroe uses hCard to display his contact information on his about page
- The ECS (Scool of Electronics and Computer Science at the University of Southampton) People Pages use vCard. Contact email@example.com if there's any bugs.
- Pat Ramsey has his contact information on his blog marked up with hCard. Contact firstname.lastname@example.org if there are any bugs there.
- Meryl K. Evans has a hidden hCard on her homepage.
- VYRE is a CMS development company with a "contact us" hCard
- Alf Kåre Lefdal uses hCard in the markup of his contact information
- Pig N Whistle, a chain of pubs in Brisbane, Australia is using hcard to mark up all the contact pages for its outlets and head office
- Patrick Kollitsch has built his personal Profil as hCard
- Harvard Business School has hCards on their faculty pages
- openmikes.org uses hCards for open mike venue addresses in its listing detail pages.
- InterTecno, LCC publishes an hCard on the home page and contact page.
- Turner Classic Movies TCM spanish website has published contact details as a hCard
- Rejuvenation is now using hCard for contact information.
- shifting pixel photoblog has published an hCard.
- Aiden Kenny hasn't published his hCard yet, but he has published his hCard icon:
- Andy Hume uses hCards to mark-up the names and URLs of commentors on his blog, e.g. his blog post on "Using hCards in your blog".
- BidClix's Contact BidClix page has it's contact info marked up with an hCard.
- Brian Suda has managed to embed a photo in his hCard through the data uri scheme by converting the image to BASE64 code. View the Source to see how this is accomplished. The X2V link will extract the image and encode it for a vCard which will be displayed in some address book applications.
- Inspired by this I thought to try the same for SVG at Barefoot ...
- <img class="photo" style="display:none;" src="data:image/svg+xml;text,<?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8' standalone='no'?><svg xmlns:svg='http://www.w3.org/2000/svg' xmlns='http://www.w3.org/2000/svg' version='1.0' width='50' height='80' id='svg3957'><defs id='defs3959' /><path d='M 28.91433,...32.192802 z' style='fill:#cc4d00;fill-opacity:1;fill-rule:evenodd;stroke:none;stroke-width:0.625;stroke-linecap:butt;stroke-linejoin:miter;stroke-miterlimit:4;stroke-opacity:1' id='path9551' /></svg>" alt="Barefoot">
- Does it work?? Well it parses OK. Some automated tools replace the < with %3C (etc., eg Brian Suda's vcard form). Unfortunately Kontact (KDE contacts tool) doesn't handle SVG as a vCard photo or logo format - I don't know if this is a standard. It seems it could work and maybe even does somewhere. Maybe the text field needs to be Base64 encoded? ... see pbhj's slashdot journal for a bit more on this.
- Cinema Treasures uses hCard to markup venue information for 10,000+ movie theaters.
- Dan Connolly's index of events and talks has hCards for many of the people he has met at those events. In Mar 2006, he moved a bunch of hotel contact info from his PDA to this page; it's now up to 32 hCards.
- Don Crowley has published his hCard as well as a nifty hCard button:
- Douglas W. Clifton added all types of contact information
- Eventful publishes all of its venue information pages with embedded hCards.
- Iowa Military Veterans Band Contacts - 95 hCards marked up by Scott Reynen
- Jack L. Wolfgang II has converted the addresses in his resume to hCards.
- Mathieu Drouet and Annie Leger both have hCards
- Neil Dunn has published his rather good looking hCard
- Oliver Brown has published his hCard.
- Paradigm Productions published a vcard as a ul (marked up by Peter Jacobson)
- Patrick H. Lauke has marked up his contact info with hCard.
- Paul Schreiber has published his hCard on [http://paulschreiber.com/about/?contact his about page.
- Paul Schreiber's Sunnyvale House Concerts site publishes hCards for upcoming artists, as well as an hCard for the page itself. In addition the Past Shows page contains hCards for all past artists.
- Paul Smith has created an hCard page which is Human Readable, and a link to X2V passing the same hCard page to generate a vCard.
- Phil Windley has published his hCard.
- Piercarlo Slavazza has published an hCard.
- Rob Mientjes has published his hCard on his about page.
- Robert Bachmann has published his hCard and a button.
- Scott Reynen has published his hCard on [http://www.randomchaos.com/document.php?source=scott_reynen his profile page.
- StackFrame, LLC has published employee and general contact information as hCards.
- Steven Ametjan has published his hCard on his about page.
- Syndicate - Speaker List as a set of hCards
- TagCamp contact list
- Tantek's Thoughts includes an inline author hCard at the bottom of the page.
- Technorati's About page lists their Media Contact
- The Brothers McDowell have hCards at their Contact page.
- Twinsparc put an hCard in the header and footer of all their pages.
- Web 2.0 Conference speakers page marked up with hCard
- Web Essentials 05 marked up all their presenters with hCard.
- The University of Guelph includes hCard info in its directory.
Examples with some problems
- Gerard Braad has published an example on his profile page that is almost consistent with his original vCard file. Also progress is made for transforming his FoaF file to a hCard encoded representation. (also done for my spouse:Yong Yuan)
- (2005-09-27) PASSED, PASSED
- uses 'n given-name' and 'n family-name' instead of nesting the given- and family- names inside the 'n'
- has one 'tel' value with a bunch of values stuffed in
- probably more problems --RyanKing 17:19, 5 Jan 2006 (PST)
- Cori Schlegel discusses how he has updated his contact page with hCard
- INVALID - using 'prefix' instead of 'honorific-prefix' and type's in classnames (in both adr and tel) and has two photo's (the second could be 'logo') --RyanKing 15:15, 5 Jan 2006 (PST)
- The good ship Leonid Miloslavskiy spotted in the North Atlantic
- INVALID --RyanKing 00:50, 27 Oct 2005 (PDT)
- class="family" should probably be family-name
- the "n" property is missing and the "n" optimization can't be applied
- the first geo propery is empty, the second one is invalid (ie, it doesn't contain lat/long)
- INVALID --RyanKing 00:50, 27 Oct 2005 (PDT)
- Landsbanki Føroya
- INVALID - using embedded rdf/xml invalidly
- Chris Cherry's contact page with his hCard
WARNING - uses class="cell" instead of <span class="type">cell</span>Fixed -- Chris Cherry 19:54, 15 Sep 2006 (PST)
- University of Bath Person Finder results are encoded with hCards so you can easily create a vCard from any result.
- Richi Jennings has put up his attempt
- INVALID, missing FN --RyanKing 12:47, 5 Jan 2006 (PST)
- Yellow Pencil Using microformats to present company contact information
- First hcard has empty "fn" and no "n". "fn" should be with "org" -- ScottReynen 21:29, 19 Jun 2006 (CST)
This section is informative.
The following implementations have been developed which either generate or parse hCards. If you have an hCard implementation, feel free to add it to the top of this list. Once the list grows too big, we'll make a separate wiki page.
- Microformats Bookmarklet is a bookmarklet designed for Safari (works in Firefox and Camino) that overlays on the current page to allow users to import individual hCards or hCalendars. Written by Remy Sharp.
- vCardExplorer 0.2 is a Mac OS X Application, that displays VCF-Files and extracts hCards from Websites written by Daniel Kagemann.
- Extract Microformats is a script for NetNewsWire that supports extracting hCard and hCalendar data in blog posts (via technorati service). Written by Chris Casciano
- hKit is an open source PHP 5 parsing library with support for hCard.
- Technorati Microformats Search indexes hCard, hCalendar, and hReview as announced by Tantek.
- list of pages with indexing Issues so they can be looked into as to why data is not being extracted
- Dreamweaver Extension suite from the Web Standards Project enables the authoring of hCards from within Dreamweaver 8.
- Scooch is a slide show and presentation creator that generates a hCard 1.0 for individual slide show authors and comment authors with a CSS button to parse and download via X2V. Also uses hReview 0.4 (in progress) for slide ratings and rel="tag" for categories.
- Flocktails - port of Tails extension for Flock 0.5.12 that looks for hCards, hCalendar, xFolk and hReview and tosses them into a handy topbar
- uformats is a ruby library that can parse hCalendar 1.0, hCard 1.0, hReview 0.4 (in progress) and rel="tag"
- Tails is a Firefox Extension that will display the presence and details of microformats (hCard, hCalendar, hReview, xFolk) on a webpage. Tails Export is an extended version.
- Smartzilla is a Firefox Extension that finds hCards on web pages and lets you add them to your addressbook.
- pnh_mf is a plugin for Textpattern that supports embedding hCard and other microformats in templates and blog posts. Written by Chris Casciano.
- There is evidence of built-in hCard support in the Konqueror browser. Specifically, Konqueror 3.5, in KDE 3.5 (kubuntu Breezy w/ update).
- There is evidence of a kwiki plugin for hCards. Update: the hCard kwiki plugin svn repository. See the documentation of the hCard kwiki plugin.
- X2V is a bookmarklet that parses hCard and produces a .vcf (vCard) stream. Note: needs to be updated as the spec is refined
- Duncan Walker has built a Firefox extension that gets hCard data from a webpage, uses Brian Suda's XSL (locally) to transform it to vcard format and opens the resulting .vcf file.
- George has written a Greasemonkey user script that detects hCards and allows users to easily add them to their address book application. Relies on the X2V web service to do the conversion.
- Martin Rehfeld has updated the work of David Janes and produced a greasemonkey script that finds many microformat elements, including hCards, and provides a popup menu of actions. The hCard to vCard conversion is done internally within the script. This will work with FireFox 1.5+/GreaseMonkey 0.6.4+ now.
- Mark Pilgrim has also written an hCard parser Greasemonkey user script. It is self-contained and does not rely on the X2V web service.
- Oliver Brown has written an "extension" to SimpleXML that gives simple access to hCard information in PHP 5.
- Andrew D. Hume has built a system (Wordpress plugin?) for using hcards in your blog to represent people leaving comments on blog posts.
- The hCard creator is a very simple, yet illustrative, open source user interface / form / script which creates an hCard in real-time as you type in a set of contact information.
- rfc2629.xslt now attempts to generate hCard information (RFC2629 is an XML format for authoring RFCs and Internet Drafts, see example document)
- iChat buddy list to hCards - Open source AppleScript to automatically convert one's buddy list in the MacOSX iChat AIM client into a valid XHTML 1.0 Strict list of hCards.
- palmagent is a collection of palmpilot and sidekick tools. It includes X2V derivatives xhtml2hcard.xsl and toICal.xsl plus some hcardTest materials
- OpenPsa 2.x CRM application uses hCard for all person listings. The widget is reusable across Midgard CMS
- Emiliano Martínez Luque has written an experimental hCard finder and structured search application that finds hCards within a given set of URLs and returns the ones that match the specified search criteria.
- Microformat Base is an open-source PHP microformat aggregation crawler, currently recognizing hreview, hcalendar, and hcard.
This section is informative.
There are numerous potential additional uses and applications for hCards on the Web. The following are merely a few thoughts and possibilities that folks have come up with:
- As an open standard/format for Gravatars.
- Marking up individual authors of blog posts on a group blog
- Marking up people's names and URLs in a blogroll
- Any reference to people in blog posts (e.g. when citing them, or referencing them, or describing them, by name).
- HTML reformatted version of RFC2426
- hCard term introduced and defined on the Web, 20040930
- FOO Camp 2004 Simple Semantic Formats presentation, 20040910
- Contributed from http://developers.technorati.com/wiki/hCard.
- XHTML 1.1
Specifications That Use hCard
- hCard creator (feedback) - create your own hCard.
- hCard authoring - learn how to add hCard markup to your existing contact info.
- hCard examples - Example usage of various classes within hCard,
- hCard FAQ - If you have any questions about hCard, check here, and if you don't find answers, add your questions!
- hCard parsing - Normatively details of how to parse hCards.
- hCard issues - Please add any issues with the specification to the issues page.
- hCard profile - The XMDP profile for hCard
This specification is a work in progress. As additional aspects are discussed, understood, and written, they will be added. These thoughts, issues, and questions are kept in separate pages.
- hCard Brainstorming - where we are keeping our brainstorms and other explorations relating to hCard
- hCard tests - a wiki page with actual embedded hCards to try parsing.
- Digital Web Magazine: Microformats Primer by Garrett Dimon has a good intro to hCard
- Practical Microformats with hCard by Drew McLellan
- Local Search Engine Optimization using Microformats by Chris Silver Smith
- Andrew D. Hume has written a blog post on usable microformats which discusses hCard
- Jesse Skinner's introduction to hCard
- Shaun Shull's great post on How Microformats Affect SEO, including his hCard as an example.
- See also blogs discussing this page and the hCard tag