- 1 hCard FAQ
- 1.1 Q&A
- 1.1.1 Should I use ADDRESS for hCards
- 1.1.2 Why is url property necessary
- 1.1.3 How do I support an existing vCard URL
- 1.1.4 What are plural hCard properties
- 1.1.5 What does FN stand for
- 1.1.6 How is gender represented
- 1.1.7 Can an hCard contains extra elements
- 1.1.8 Can a GEO be inferred from an ADR in an hCard
- 1.1.9 X2V does not convert email with name as plain text
- 1.1.10 What hCard properties are required
- 1.1.11 Does N property require all subproperties
- 1.1.12 Do FN and N need to be on same element
- 1.1.13 How do you convert a vCard to an hCard
- 1.1.14 Are descendant elements recognized in a microformat
- 1.1.15 Do properties like TEL use all descendants
- 1.1.16 Can you have multiple value elements
- 1.1.17 Can you mix properties and the root class name
- 1.1.18 Can you mix a property and its subproperties
- 1.1.19 Can you use query strings on email
- 1.1.20 Are ADR and TEL types case sensitive
- 1.1.21 How does GEO work with ABBR
- 1.1.22 Why is the root class name vcard
- 1.1.23 How do you markup a phone extension
- 1.1.24 How do you encode IM accounts
- 1.1.25 Can you hCard the deceased
- 1.1.26 Any plans for xparams
- 1.1.27 What is a word in implied optimizations
- 1.1.28 How do you create non English tooltips
- 1.2 Related Pages
- 1.1 Q&A
Should I use ADDRESS for hCards
Should I use the more semantic
<address> element for my hCards?
- Yes the
<address>element is more semantic, but it is too specifically semantic for most hCard uses. The poorly named
<address>element really means <contact-info-for-this-web-page>. The HTML4 definition of the ADDRESS element says it is used "to supply contact information for a document or a major part of a document such as a form." Therefore
<address>should be used for an hCard ONLY IF that hCard represents the contact information for the page or major part thereof. One example of such a usage is on Tantek's blog. Another way of saying this is the following two statements: Every <address> on a page SHOULD be an hCard. But not every hCard should be an
In short, DO NOT use
<address>to markup addresses in general. Only use it to markup the contact information for the page (or major part thereof), and when doing so, use it to markup the entire contact information (via <address class="vcard">), not just the address of the contact.
Why is url property necessary
Why is it necessary to put class name "url" on URL elements in the hCard when those hyperlinks already start with "http://", and that is enough to distinguish them from email links?
- The classname "url" is necessary to explicitly distinguish hyperlinks that are URL elements for the hCard, from other hyperlinks that may be related to the item or otherwise in the same containing element but should not be included in the hCard. Common links that may appear in the document but not be contact information are action related links (download data, add to friends list, etc.) contact hyperlinks (email, internal site messaging, autodialers), as well as hyperlinks to photos, or other random hyperlinks that happen to be inside the hCard.
How do I support an existing vCard URL
I already have a vCard that I keep up-to-date. I don't want to change any references to it because it might break something else, what can I do?
- You can use .HTACCESS to rewrite links to your vCard to a webservice that converts a page to the vCard dynamically, to do this you need to add something similar to your .htaccess file
RewriteRule ^path/to/old.vcf http://suda.co.uk/projects/X2V/get-vcard.php\?uri=http://example.com/hCard_encoded.htm&filename=old.vcf
Now you shouldn't have to do anything else, all links to the "old.vcf" are redirected to the webservice and will return a new vCard that is dynamially generated from your page.
I think that using 'Redirect' is better than using mod_rewrite (is not enabled on some hosts) --Robert Bachmann
Redirect /path/to/old.vcf http://suda.co.uk/projects/X2V/get-vcard.php?uri=http://example.com/hCard_encoded.htm&filename=old.vcf
What are plural hCard properties
Is there a list of all hCard properties which can be plural?
Is there a list of all the properties which can have multiple instances?
- There is the list of hCard properties, and the list of singular hCard properties. Everything that is not singular is plural. This list was presented explicitly (after much analysis of RFC2426) because it was too hard to read RFC2426 and reliably grok which properties were singular vs. plural.
Old previous answer:
- We have avoided *duplicating* (or providing a shortcut for) the "can this property occur multiple times or not" deliberately in order to avoid repeating a constraint from RFC 2426 vCard, and thus potentially getting it wrong. Here is the way to determine whether or not a particular property can occur multiple times (is a plural property / may have multiple instances or values).
- Check the hCard XMDP profile for the property definition.
- If the property definition references a plural form in RFC 2426 (e.g. honorific-suffix references honorific suffixes), then the property is a plural property.
- Else go check the referenced section in RFC 2426 which should state explicitly whether or not the property is plural or singular.
- Else (if RFC 2426 is *not* explicit) then the property is plural.
What does FN stand for
What does FN stand for?
- FN stands for "Formatted Name." From Section 3.1.1 of the RFC:
Type purpose: To specify the formatted text corresponding to the name of the object the vCard represents.
- The reasoning behind this seems to be that, while N gives us a structured name, FN gives us the human-readable, formatted name which is assembled from its structured parts in a culturally dependant way.
How is gender represented
How do you represent gender in hCard?
- There is no GENDER property in vCard RFC2426. hCard is following the schema from vCard for interoperability reasons. If you want, it is possible to represent gender implicitly in the honorific-prefix field, e.g. Mr. for male, and Ms. for female:
Note that there is also a page on MSDN that mentions vCard and "gender". Not sure what to make of that.
Gender could be represented with a genealogical microformat, but that seems like overkill.
Instead, keep it simple! Just use tags/categories to tag people's hCards with their gender, "male", "female", or any other tag you feel is appropriate. See gender identity for more details on the topic.
Can an hCard contains extra elements
Is it OK for an hCard node to contain extra elements?
- Yes, parsers will ignore anything they don't understand.
Can a GEO be inferred from an ADR in an hCard
Can I automatically add GEO from an address when transfoming an hCard to vCard if it is not present?
- No, an address represents a building which is a polygon, whereas a GEO only represents a single point
X2V does not convert email with name as plain text
X2V doesn't convert my email address correctly, it is in the form href="FirstName LastName <Email@example.com>"
- While that form of email address works for some programs such as outlook, it is not a valid mailto: value (see RFC2368) the FirstName and LastName should be omitted.
One possible valid hCard markup would be:
<span class="vcard"> <span class="fn">Firstname Lastname</span> <<a class="email" href="mailto:Email@example.com">Email@example.com</a>> </span>
This might be displayed as:
What hCard properties are required
What properties are required in an hCard?
- The only required properties are 'fn' (the formatted name) and 'n' (the structured name), but 'n' can under certain circumstances be inferred from the
fnproperty. See the Implied N Optimization for details.
Does N property require all subproperties
If I use the 'n' property, do I have to use ALL of the sub-properties?
- No, You can use as many or as few as you need to mark-up the name, but at a minimum you should at least use the 'given-name' and 'family-name' sub-properties if at all possible. If all you have is a nickname/handle/userid, then consider simply marking it up as an 'fn' property and taking advantage of the Implied "nickname" Optimization.
Do FN and N need to be on same element
Do the 'fn' and 'n' properties have to be on the same element?
- No, you can have two separate elements, for example:
<p class="vcard">My name is <span class="n"> <span class="honorific-prefix">Mr.</span> <span class="given-name">John</span> <span class="additional-name">Q</span> <span class="family-name">Public</span> </span> but you can just call me <span class="fn">Johnny</span> </p>
How do you convert a vCard to an hCard
Is there a way to convert a vCard to an hCard?
- There is no canonical conversion from a vCard to an hCard because you can construct an hCard in many different ways while expressing the same semantics. If you would like to recommend a suggested template hCard to use when displaying vCards in a browser, please propose it to the mailing list.
Are descendant elements recognized in a microformat
Are descendants recognized in a microformat property?
- Yes, for example:
<span class="country-name">United States <small>of</small> America</span>
The output would be "United States of America".
Do properties like TEL use all descendants
Do properties like TEL use all descendants? e.g.
<span class="tel"><span class="type">Home</span>:<span class="value">+1.234.567.8900</span></span>
Shouldn't that output be "TEL:Home: +1.234.567.8900"?
- No. class="value" is used to denote a sub-element which is used for the value of the property. See Value excerpting for more details.
Can you have multiple value elements
Can you have multiple class="value" elements inside a property and what happens to them?
- Sure, for example:
<span class="tel"><span class="type">Home</span>:<span class="value">+1</span>.<span class="value">234</span>.<span class="value">567</span>.<span class="value">8900</span></span>
would output: "+12345678900".
Can you mix properties and the root class name
Can you put properties on the same element as the root class for a microformat? E.g. class="vcard fn"?
- No, for several reasons:
- It breaks the simple contextual CSS selector rule for finding and styling property values: .rootname .propertyname which will make it more difficult to write scoped CSS for the properties. For more on why this is important see the microformats FAQ regarding class interactions.
- It will result in more confusion for parsers which may be parsing nested microformats.
Can you mix a property and its subproperties
Can singular sub-properties be mixed with parents?
- No, all sub-properties MUST be on elements inside their parents.
Can you use query strings on email
What happened to the Query String on my email address?
- Query strings are removed from email addresses because they are not valid for importing to vCards
Are ADR and TEL types case sensitive
Is the list of possible types for an ADR and TEL case sensitive?
- No, enumerated values are case-INsensitive, therefore Home, home, HOME, etc. are all equivalent.
How does GEO work with ABBR
What happens to the GEO sub-properties when GEO is used with ABBR?
- The GEO property can be represented two different ways:
<span class="geo"> <span class="latitude">123.45</span> <span class="longitude">67.89</span> </span> <abbr class="geo" title="123.45;67.89">My House</abbr>
When used with an <abbr> element the latitude and longitude are seperated by a semicolon.
Why is the root class name vcard
Why is the root class="vcard" and not 'hcard'?
- The reason is historical, hCard is based off of the vCard specification.
How do you markup a phone extension
How do I mark-up a phone extension in hCard? There doesn't seem to be a way to declare a telephone extension in the vCard RFC 2426 spec, the suggested way is currently:
<span class="tel"> <span class="type">work</span>: <span class="value">800 555-1212 x 1234</span> </span>
RFC 3966 suggests that an extension be indicated with ";ext=" for example:
<span class="tel"> <span class="type">work</span>: <span class="value">800 555-1212;ext=1234</span> </span>
although that is more relevant when used as a URI:
<span class="tel"> <span class="type">work</span>: <a class="value" href="tel:+18005551212;ext=1234">800 555-1212;ext=1234</a> </span>
How do you encode IM accounts
How do I encode my IM account in hCard?
Can you hCard the deceased
How do you make an hCard for the deceased?
- vCards were never designed to handle date-of-death, please refer to the biographical or Genealogy Formats microformat
Any plans for xparams
Are there plans to include x-parameters in future versions of hCard?
- No. The problem is that each of these x-parameters are vendor specific and are not part of the RFC. Secondly, there is no way to be 100% sure that 'x-foobar' is not just a content-specific HTML class name that the publisher is using for CSS styling.
What is a word in implied optimizations
What constitutes a "word" for the purpose of 'implied-n optimization'?
- "N" can be implied from "FN" when the content of "FN" is broken into two "words" separated by whitespace. For this purpose, a "word" is any sequence of non-whitespace characters including but not limited to low- and high-range alphanumerics and punctuation. A "word" can be characterised by the following regular expression:
How do you create non English tooltips
My website is not in English and i want the tooltips to be in my native language
- Properties such as class="type" require an enumerated list of English words. It is possible to use your native language for the displaying tooltip, but still use the English work for the class="type" without it being shown.
<abbr class="type" title="home"> <span title="[your native word for home here]"> to my home </span> </abbr>
Having an span with a title attribute inside the abbr element will only display the title on the span, where you have the text (your native word for home here).
- hCard cheatsheet - hCard properties
- hCard creator (feedback) - create your own hCard.
- hCard authoring - learn how to add hCard markup to your existing contact info.
- hCard examples - example usage of various classes within hCard.
- hCard examples in the wild - an on-going list of websites which use hCards.
- hCard supporting user profiles - sites with user profiles marked up with hCard - a very common example.
- hCard FAQ - if you have any questions about hCard, check here.
- hCard implementations - websites or tools which either generate or parse hCards.
- hCard parsing - normative details of how to parse hCards.
- hCards and pages - semantic distinctions between different hCards on a page, and how to identify each
- hcard-user-interface - techniques and issues surrounding user-interfaces to author, publish, and display hCards.
- hCard profile - the XMDP profile for hCard
- hCard singular properties - an explanation of the list of singular properties in hCard.
- hCard tests - a wiki page with actual embedded hCards to try parsing.
- hCard advocacy - encourage others to use hCard
- hCard "to do" - jobs to do
The hCard specification is a work in progress. As additional aspects are discussed, understood, and written, they will be added. These thoughts, issues, and questions are kept in separate pages.
- hCard brainstorming - brainstorms and other explorations relating to hCard.
- hCard feedback - general feedback (as opposed to specific issues).
- hCard issues - specific issues with the specification.
- vCard errata - corrections to the vCard specification, which underlies hCard.
- vCard suggestions - suggested improvements to the vCard specification.