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Citation Examples Markup

The following examples are real world examples of citations found on the web. Please add to this list. The idea is that we get a solid sample of examples and see what commonalities there are amonst them and try to build this microformat so that it can meet 80% of typical uses.

NOTE: this page is for holding the reference markup from citation-examples. To add to these pages, paste the markup here then do the analysis over on citation-examples.


Citation Mark Up in the Wild

RFC vCard Example

9.  References

   [ISO 8601]    ISO 8601:1988 - Data elements and interchange formats -
                 Information interchange - Representation of dates and
                 times - The International Organization for
                 Standardization, June, 1988.

   [ISO 8601 TC] ISO 8601, Technical Corrigendum 1 - Data elements and
                 interchange formats - Information interchange -
                 Representation of dates and times - The International
                 Organization for Standardization, May, 1991.

   [ISO 9070]    ISO 9070, Information Processing - SGML support
                 facilities - Registration Procedures for Public Text
                 Owner Identifiers, April, 1991.

   [CCITT E.163] Recommendation E.163 - Numbering Plan for The
                 International Telephone Service, CCITT Blue Book,
                 Fascicle II.2, pp.  128-134, November, 1988.

   [CCITT X.121] Recommendation X.121 - International Numbering Plan for
                 Public Data Networks, CCITT Blue Book, Fascicle VIII.3,
                 pp. 317-332, November, 1988.

   [CCITT X.520] Recommendation X.520 - The Directory - Selected
                 Attribute Types, November 1988.

   [CCITT X.521] Recommendation X.521 - The Directory - Selected Object
                 Classes, November 1988.

   [MIME-DIR]    Howes, T., Smith, M., and F. Dawson, "A MIME Content-
                 Type for Directory Information", RFC 2425, September

   [RFC 1738]    Berners-Lee, T., Masinter, L., and M. McCahill,
                 "Uniform Resource Locators (URL)", RFC 1738, December

   [RFC 1766]    Alvestrand, H., "Tags for the Identification of
                 Languages", RFC 1766, March 1995.

   [RFC 1872]    Levinson, E., "The MIME Multipart/Related Content-
                 type", RFC 1872, December 1995.

   [RFC 2045]    Freed, N., and N. Borenstein, "Multipurpose Internet
                 Mail Extensions (MIME) - Part One: Format of Internet
                 Message Bodies", RFC 2045, November 1996.

   [RFC 2046]    Freed, N., and N. Borenstein, "Multipurpose Internet
                 Mail Extensions (MIME) - Part Two: Media Types", RFC
                 2046, November 1996.

   [RFC 2047]    Moore, K., "Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions
                 (MIME) - Part Three: Message Header Extensions for
                 Non-ASCII Text", RFC 2047, November 1996.

   [RFC 2048]    Freed, N., Klensin, J., and J. Postel, "Multipurpose
                 Internet Mail Extensions (MIME) - Part Four:
                 Registration Procedures", RFC 2048, January 1997.

   [RFC 2119]    Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
                 Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.

   [RFC 2234]    Crocker, D., and P. Overell, "Augmented BNF for Syntax
                 Specifications: ABNF", RFC 2234, November 1997.

   [UNICODE]     "The Unicode Standard - Version 2.0", The Unicode
                 Consortium, July 1996.

   [VCARD]       Internet Mail Consortium, "vCard - The Electronic
                 Business Card Version 2.1",
       , September 18,

vCard RFC

W3C XHTML Spec Example

<h1><a name="refs" id="refs">E.</a> References</h1>

<p><strong>This appendix is informative.</strong></p>

<dt><a name="ref-css2" id="ref-css2"><strong>[CSS2]</strong></a></dt>

<dd>"<cite><a href="">Cascading Style Sheets, level 2 (CSS2) Specification</a></cite>", B. Bos, H. W. Lie, C. Lilley, I. Jacobs, 12 May 1998.<br />
<a href="">Latest version</a> available at:</dd>

<dt><a name="ref-dom" id="ref-dom"><strong>[DOM]</strong></a></dt>

<dd>"<cite><a href="">Document Object Model (DOM) Level 1 Specification</a></cite>", Lauren Wood <em lang="lt" xml:lang="lt">et al.</em>, 1 October
1998.<br />
<a href="">Latest version</a> available at:</dd>

<dt><a name="ref-dom2" id="ref-dom2"><strong>[DOM2]</strong></a></dt>

<dd>"<cite><a href="">Document Object Model (DOM) Level 2 Core Specification</a></cite>", A. Le Hors, <em lang="lt" xml:lang="lt">et
al.</em>, 13 November 2000.<br />
<a href="">Latest version</a> available at:</dd>

<dt><a name="ref-html4" id="ref-html4"><strong>[HTML]</strong></a></dt>

<dd>"<cite><a href="">HTML 4.01 Specification</a></cite>", D. Raggett, A. Le Hors, I. Jacobs, 24 December 1999.<br />
<a href="">Latest version</a> available at:</dd>

<dt><a name="ref-posix.1" id="ref-posix.1"><strong>[POSIX.1]</strong></a></dt>

<dd>"<cite>ISO/IEC 9945-1:1990 Information Technology - Portable Operating System Interface (POSIX) - Part 1: System Application Program Interface (API) [C Language]</cite>", Institute of Electrical
and Electronics Engineers, Inc, 1990.</dd>

<dt><a id="ref-rfc2045" name="ref-rfc2045"><strong>[RFC2045]</strong></a></dt>

<dd>"<cite><a href="">Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions (MIME) Part One: Format of Internet Message Bodies</a></cite>", N. Freed and N. Borenstein, November
1996. Note that this RFC obsoletes RFC1521, RFC1522, and RFC1590.</dd>

<dt><a name="ref-rfc2046" id="ref-rfc2046"><strong>[RFC2046]</strong></a></dt>

<dd>"<cite><a href="">RFC2046: Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions (MIME) Part Two: Media Types</a></cite>", N. Freed and N. Borenstein, November 1996.<br />
Available at <a href=""></a>. Note that this RFC obsoletes RFC1521, RFC1522, and RFC1590.</dd>

<dt><a name="ref-rfc2119" id="ref-rfc2119"><strong>[RFC2119]</strong></a></dt>

<dd>"<cite><a href="">RFC2119: Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate Requirement Levels</a></cite>", S. Bradner, March 1997.<br />
Available at:</dd>

<dt><a name="ref-rfc2376" id="ref-rfc2376"><strong>[RFC2376]</strong></a></dt>

<dd>"<cite><a href="">RFC2376: XML Media Types</a></cite>", E. Whitehead, M. Murata, July 1998.<br />
This document is obsoleted by [<a href="#ref-rfc3023">RFC3023</a>].<br />
Available at:</dd>

<dt><a name="ref-rfc2396" id="ref-rfc2396"><strong>[RFC2396]</strong></a></dt>

<dd>"<cite><a href="">RFC2396: Uniform Resource Identifiers (URI): Generic Syntax</a></cite>", T. Berners-Lee, R. Fielding, L. Masinter, August 1998.<br />
This document updates RFC1738 and RFC1808.<br />
Available at:</dd>

<dt><a name="ref-rfc2854" id="ref-rfc2854"><strong>[RFC2854]</strong></a></dt>

<dd>"<cite><a href="">RFC2854: The text/html Media Type</a></cite>", D. Conolly, L. Masinter, June 2000.<br />
Available at:</dd>

<dt><a name="ref-rfc3023" id="ref-rfc3023"><strong>[RFC3023]</strong></a></dt>

<dd>"<cite><a href="">RFC3023: XML Media Types</a></cite>", M. Murata, S. St.Laurent, D. Kohn, January 2001.<br />
This document obsoletes [<a href="#ref-rfc2376">RFC2376</a>].<br />
Available at:</dd>

<dt><a id="ref-rfc3066" name="ref-rfc3066"><strong>[RFC3066]</strong></a></dt>

<dd>"<a href="">Tags for the Identification of Languages</a>", H. Alvestrand, January 2001.<br />
Available at:</dd>

<dt><a id="ref-rfc3236" name="ref-rfc3236"><strong>[RFC3236]</strong></a></dt>

<dd>"<a href="">The 'application/xhtml+xml' Media Type</a>", M. Baker, P. Stark, January 2002.<br />
Available at:</dd>

<dt><a id="ref-xhtml-mathml" name="ref-xhtml-mathml"><strong>[XHTML+MathML]</strong></a></dt>

<dd><cite>"<a href="">XHTML plus Math 1.1 <abbr title="Document Type Definition">DTD</abbr></a></cite>", "A.2 MathML as a DTD Module", Mathematical
Markup Language (MathML) Version 2.0. Available at:</dd>

<dt><a id="ref-xhtmlmime" name="ref-xhtmlmime"><strong>[XHTMLMIME]</strong></a></dt>

<dd>"<cite><a href="">XHTML Media Types</a></cite>", Masayasu Ishikawa, 1 August 2002.<br />
<a href="">Latest version</a> available at:</dd>

<dt><a id="ref-xhtmlmod" name="ref-xhtmlmod"><strong>[XHTMLMOD]</strong></a></dt>

<dd>"<cite><a href="">Modularization of XHTML</a></cite>", M. Altheim et al., 10 April 2001.<br />
<a href="">Latest version</a> available at:</dd>

<dt><a name="ref-xml" id="ref-xml"><strong>[XML]</strong></a></dt>

<dd>"<a href="">Extensible Markup Language (XML) 1.0 Specification (Second Edition)</a>", T. Bray, J. Paoli, C. M. Sperberg-McQueen, E. Maler, 6 October
2000.<br />
<a href="">Latest version</a> available at:</dd>

<dt><a name="ref-xmlns" id="ref-xmlns"><strong>[XMLNS]</strong></a></dt>

<dd>"<a href="">Namespaces in XML</a>", T. Bray, D. Hollander, A. Layman, 14 January 1999.<br />
XML namespaces provide a simple method for qualifying names used in XML documents by associating them with namespaces identified by URI.<br />
<a href="">Latest version</a> available at:</dd>

<dt><a name="ref-xmlc14n" id="ref-xmlc14n"><strong>[XMLC14N]</strong></a></dt>

<dd>"<a href="">Canonical XML Version 1.0</a>", J. Boyer, 15 March 2001.<br />
This document describes a method for generating a physical representation, the canonical form, of an XML document.<br />
<a href="">Latest version</a> available at:</dd>

XHTML1.0 Spec references

CiteProc XHTML Output

The XHTML output for CiteProc[1] wasn't designed per se as a microformat, but is probably not a bad place to start. It is desgined to handle a wide range of content. Here is the APA output:

 <div id="bibliography">


   <p id="Brenner2000a" class="bibref">
    <span class="creator">Brenner, N.</span>
    <span class="date"> (<span class="year">2000</span>) </span>
    <span class="title">The Urban Question as a Scale Question: Reflections 
    on Henri Lefebre, Urban Theory and the Politics of Scale, </span>
    <span class="container">
      <span class="title" style="font-style: italic">International Journal of 
        Urban and Regional Research, </span>
      <span class="volume">24</span>
      <span class="issue">(2)</span>
      <span class="locator">, pp. 361–78</span>

   <p id="NW2000-0207" class="bibref">
     <span class="creator">Newsweek</span>
     <span class="date"> 
       (<span class="year">2000a</span>
       <span class="month">, February</span>
       <span class="day"> 7</span>) 
     <span class="title">The Grandmas Pay a Visit, </span>
     <span class="container">
       <span class="volume">135</span>
       <span class="issue">(6)</span>
       <span class="locator">, pp. 45</span>

   <p id="Veer1996a" class="bibref">
     <span class="creator">van der Veer, P.</span>
     <span class="date"><span class="year"> (1996) </span></span>
     <span class="title">Riots and Rituals: The Construction of Violence 
       and Public Space in Hindu Nationalism</span>
     <span class="container">, In Brass, P.<span class="role"> (Ed.)</span>. 
       <span class="title" style="font-style: italic">Riots and Pogroms.</span>
       <span class="origin"><span class="place">New York</span>
       <span class="publisher">: NYU Press</span></span>
       <span class="locator">, pp. 154–76</span>

ACM Digital Library Search Result Examples

The ACM Digital Library is a heavily used computer science literature database.

First, the markup for one entry from the table of contents page for the ACM TACO (Transactions on Architecture and Code Optimization) journal:

<td align="left" class="small-text">
<a href="citation.cfm?id=1113841.1113842&coll=portal&dl=ACM&idx=1113841&part=periodical&WantType=periodical&title=ACM%20Transactions%20on%20Architecture%20and%20Code%20Optimization%20%28TACO%29&CFID=68451946&CFTOKEN=20517650"class="medium-text" target="_self">
<strong>Improving WCET by applying a WC code-positioning optimization </strong>
 Wankang Zhao, David Whalley, Christopher Healy, Frank Mueller
<small> Pages: 335 - 365</small>
<br>Full text available: <A HREF="ft_gateway.cfm?id=1113842&type=pdf&coll=portal&dl=ACM&CFID=68451946&CFTOKEN=20517650" target="_blank"><img src="images/pdf_logo.gif" ... height="16" hspace="1" alt="pdf format" border="0" align="texttop">Pdf</A>(510 KB)

<div class="smaller-text"><table border="0" cellpadding="0" cellpadding="0"><tr valign="top"><td class="smaller-text" nowrap>Additional Information:</td>
<td class="smaller-text"><img src="img/doc_blank.gif" ... height="16" alt="" border="0" align="texttop">
<A HREF="citation.cfm?id=1113842&jmp=cit&coll=portal&dl=ACM&CFID=68451946&CFTOKEN=20517650#CIT" target="_self">full citation</a>, 
<A HREF="citation.cfm?id=1113842&jmp=abstract&coll=portal&dl=ACM&CFID=68451946&CFTOKEN=20517650#abstract" target="_self">abstract</A>, 
<A HREF="citation.cfm?id=1113842&jmp=references&coll=portal&dl=ACM&CFID=68451946&CFTOKEN=20517650#references" target="_self"> references</A>, 
<A HREF="citation.cfm?id=1113842&jmp=indexterms&coll=portal&dl=ACM&CFID=68451946&CFTOKEN=20517650#indexterms" target="_self"> index terms</A></td></tr></table></div></td><td> </td></tr><tr><td> </td>

The markup for the 'full citation' page is similar, with a little more information about the authors.

Here's the markup from the 'ACM Ref' link, which apparently is how they suggest you format it:

Zhao, W., Whalley, D., Healy, C., and Mueller, F. 2005. 
Improving WCET by applying a WC code-positioning optimization. 
<i>ACM Trans. Archit. Code Optim.</i> 2, 4 (Dec. 2005), 335-365. 

Next, markup from the page for a conference publication:

<td class="medium-text" colspan="3"><strong>Parallel Programmer Productivity</strong><strong>: A Case Study of Novice Parallel Programmers</strong></td>
<tr valign="top">
<td class="small-text"><strong>Full text</strong></td>
<td class="smaller-text" colspan="2" >
    <A NAME="FullText" HREF="ft_gateway.cfm?id=1105800&type=pdf&coll=portal&dl=ACM&CFID=3174023&CFTOKEN=73112765" target="_blank"><img src="" width="16" height="16" alt="pdf format" border="0" hspace="1" align="texttop">Pdf</A> (265 KB)

<tr valign="top">
    <td class="small-text"><strong>Source</strong></td>
<td class="small-text" colspan="2">
    <SPAN class="mediumb-text">Conference on High Performance Networking and Computing</span>
        <a href="toc.cfm?id=SERIES371&type=series&coll=portal&dl=ACM&CFID=3174023&CFTOKEN=73112765" class="small-link-text">archive</a>
    <SPAN class="mediumb-text">Proceedings of the 2005 ACM/IEEE conference on Supercomputing </span>
        <a href="toc.cfm?id=1105760&type=proceeding&coll=portal&dl=ACM&CFID=3174023&CFTOKEN=73112765"  class="small-link-text">table of contents</a><br>

<div class="small-text">
    Page: 35  

<div class="small-text">
    Year of Publication: 2005
    <div class="small-text">ISBN:1-59593-061-2</div>
<tr valign="top">
<td class="small-text">
<td colspan="2">
<div class="authors">
<table cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0"><tr>
<td class="small-text">
    <a href="results.cfm?query=author%3AP741898&querydisp=author%3ALorin%20Hochstein&coll=portal&dl=ACM&CFID=3174023&CFTOKEN=73112765">Lorin Hochstein</a>
<td class="small-text">
<small> University of Maryland, College Park</small>
<tr><td class="small-text">
<a href="results.cfm?query=author%3AP638131&querydisp=author%3AJeff%20Carver&coll=portal&dl=ACM&CFID=3174023&CFTOKEN=73112765">Jeff Carver</a>
<td class="small-text">
<small> Mississippi State University</small>
<td class="small-text">
<a href="results.cfm?query=author%3AP84676&querydisp=author%3AForrest%20Shull&coll=portal&dl=ACM&CFID=3174023&CFTOKEN=73112765">Forrest Shull</a>
<td class="small-text">
<small> Fraunhofer Center Maryland</small>
<tr><td class="small-text">
<a href="results.cfm?query=author%3AP494363&querydisp=author%3ASima%20Asgari&coll=portal&dl=ACM&CFID=3174023&CFTOKEN=73112765">Sima Asgari</a>
<td class="small-text">
<small> University of Maryland, College Park</small>
 <td class="small-text">
 <a href="results.cfm?query=author%3AP290702&querydisp=author%3AVictor%20Basili&coll=portal&dl=ACM&CFID=3174023&CFTOKEN=73112765">Victor Basili</a>
    <td class="small-text">
        <small> Fraunhofer Center Maryland</small>
    </tr></table></div> </td>
<tr valign="top">
 <td class="small-text">
 <td colspan="2">
    <div class="publishers">
    IEEE Computer Society  
    <small> Washington, DC, USA </small>
<tr><td><tr valign="top"><td width="100%" colspan="4">
       <table border="0" cellspacing="0" cellpadding="2" width="100%" >
         <tr valign="top">
         <td class="small-text"><b>DOI Bookmark:</b></td>
        <td class="small-text">
          <a href="">10.1109/SC.2005.53</a>

<div class="abstract">
<SPAN class=heading><A NAME="abstract">ABSTRACT</A></span>
<p class="abstract">
In developing High-Performance Computing (HPC) software, time to solution is an important metric. This metric is comprised of two main components: the human effort required developing the software, plus the amount of machine time required to execute it. To date, little empirical work has been done to study the first component: the human effort required and the effects of approaches and practices that may be used to reduce it. In this paper, we describe a series of studies that address this problem. We instrumented the development process used in multiple HPC classroom environments. We analyzed data within and across such studies, varying factors such as the parallel programming model used and the application being developed, to understand their impact on the development process.

<div class="indterms">
<A HREF="citation.cfm?id=1105800&coll=portal&dl=ACM&CFID=3174023&CFTOKEN=73112765#CIT"><img name="top" src="" hspace="10" border="0"></A><SPAN class=heading><A NAME="IndexTerms">INDEX TERMS</A></span>
<p class="Categories">
<SPAN class=heading><A NAME="GenTerms">Primary Classification:</A></span>
<a href="results.cfm?query=CCS%3AD%2E%2A&coll=portal&dl=ACM&CFID=3174023&CFTOKEN=73112765" target="_self">

<a href="results.cfm?query=CCS%3A%22D%2E1%22&coll=portal&dl=ACM&CFID=3174023&CFTOKEN=73112765" target="_self">

<a href="results.cfm?query=CCS%3A%22D%2E1%2E3%22&coll=portal&dl=ACM&CFID=3174023&CFTOKEN=73112765" target="_self">
									 Concurrent Programming</a><br>
<a href="results.cfm?query=CCS%3A%22Parallel%20programming%22&coll=portal&dl=ACM&CFID=3174023&CFTOKEN=73112765" target="_self">Parallel programming</a>

<p class="Categories">
    <SPAN class=heading><A NAME="GenTerms">Additional Classification:</A></span>

<a href="results.cfm?query=CCS%3AD%2E%2A&coll=portal&dl=ACM&CFID=3174023&CFTOKEN=73112765" target="_self">

<a href="results.cfm?query=CCS%3A%22D%2E2%22&coll=portal&dl=ACM&CFID=3174023&CFTOKEN=73112765" target="_self">
									 SOFTWARE ENGINEERING</a><br>


<a href="results.cfm?query=CCS%3A%22D%2E2%2E3%22&coll=portal&dl=ACM&CFID=3174023&CFTOKEN=73112765" target="_self">
									 Coding Tools and Techniques</a><br>


<a href="results.cfm?query=CCS%3AK%2E%2A&coll=portal&dl=ACM&CFID=3174023&CFTOKEN=73112765" target="_self">
									 Computing Milieux</a><br>

<a href="results.cfm?query=CCS%3A%22K%2E6%22&coll=portal&dl=ACM&CFID=3174023&CFTOKEN=73112765" target="_self">
<a href="results.cfm?query=CCS%3A%22K%2E6%2E3%22&coll=portal&dl=ACM&CFID=3174023&CFTOKEN=73112765" target="_self">
									 Software Management</a><br>
     <a href="results.cfm?query=CCS%3A%22Software%20development%22&coll=portal&dl=ACM&CFID=3174023&CFTOKEN=73112765" target="_self">Software development</a>
    <p class="GenTerms">
    <SPAN class=heading>
      <A NAME="GenTerms">General Terms:</A>

     <a href="results.cfm?query=genterm%3A%22Design%22&coll=portal&dl=ACM&CFID=3174023&CFTOKEN=73112765" target="_self">
     <a href="results.cfm?query=genterm%3A%22Experimentation%22&coll=portal&dl=ACM&CFID=3174023&CFTOKEN=73112765" target="_self">
     <a href="results.cfm?query=genterm%3A%22Measurement%22&coll=portal&dl=ACM&CFID=3174023&CFTOKEN=73112765" target="_self">
     <a href="results.cfm?query=genterm%3A%22Performance%22&coll=portal&dl=ACM&CFID=3174023&CFTOKEN=73112765" target="_self">

IEEE IEEExplore Search Results Markup

<td width="96%" class="bodyCopyBlackLargeSpaced" valign="middle">
<strong>On the parallel execution time of tiled loops</strong><br>
Hogstedt, K.; Carter, L.; Ferrante, J.<br>
<A href='/xpl/RecentIssue.jsp?punumber=71'>Parallel and Distributed Systems, IEEE Transactions on</A><br>
Volume: 14

 Issue: 3
 March 2003 <br />
Page(s):  307- 321<br>
Digital Object Identifier 10.1109/TPDS.2003.1189587<br>

<div id="menu0" style="display:block"><strong>Summary: </strong> Many 
computationally-intensive programs, such as those for differential equations, spatial 
interpolation, and dynamic programming, spend a large portion of their execution time in 
multiply-nested loops that have a regular stencil of data dependences.....</div>

CiteSeer database search results

The CiteSeer database has been another heavily used Computer Science online resource, and it has minimal markup:

Here's what you see on the main page for a given paper - this information is duplicated everywhere on the page, but this is where it's formatted most like an academic citation:

<font size=-1>Yoshio Kataoka, Michael D. Ernst, William G. Griswold, and David Notkin. 
Automated support for program refactoring using invariants. In ICSM, pages 736-- 743, 
November 2001.   
<a href="">More</a></font><br>

Clicking on the 'More' link in the above text gets you a page with a listing of all the ways they found it written out as a citation in other papers. This is an example of how they mark up each of those entries:

Yoshio Kataoka, Michael D. Ernst, William G. Griswold, and David Notkin. 
<i>Automated support for program refactoring using invariants</i>.
 In ICSM, pages 736-- 743, November 2001.<br>
<br> citation listing

CiteULike is a shared reference database site that allows organization using tags and ratings. The site imports from many unstructured web resources using mostly screen-scraping plugins (I think --Mike)

Here is an example of the markup for one article on the main page:

        <a class="title" href="/user/jrw/article/505272">Geometric phases in adiabatic open quantum systems</a>
        <div class="vague"></div>
        <div class="vague">by<a class="author" href="/user/jrw/author/Sarandy">Sarandy</a> MS, 
          <a class="author" href="/user/jrw/author/Lidar">Lidar</a> DA</div>
        <div class="vague">
          posted to <a class="tag" rel="tag" href="/user/jrw/tag/geometry">geometry</a>
          <a class="tag" rel="tag" href="/user/jrw/tag/physics">physics</a>
          <a class="tag" rel="tag" href="/user/jrw/tag/quantum">quantum</a>
          <a class="tag" rel="tag" href="/user/jrw/tag/quantum-information">quantum-information</a>
          by <a href="/user/jrw">jrw</a>
          as <img alt="x"src="" />
          on 2006-02-14 18:36:22

And here is markup from the detail page for another publication:

<div class="content">
    <td...><h1>T-Coffee: A novel method for fast and accurate multiple sequence alignment.</h1></td>
<div class="vague"><i>J Mol Biol</i>, Vol. 302, No. 1. (8 September 2000), pp. 205-217.</div>


    <span class="black"><a class="author" href="/user/ffranca/author/Notredame">Notredame</a> C</span>,
    <span class="black"><a class="author" href="/user/ffranca/author/Higgins">Higgins</a> DG</span>, 
    <span class="black"><a class="author" href="/user/ffranca/author/Heringa">Heringa</a> J</span>
    <td ...>
      <h2>Online Article
        <span class="Z3988"

  <td ...>
        <span class="black">DOI:</span>
        <a accesskey="1" href="" rel="nofollow">View article online</a>
        <span class="black">Pubmed:</span>
        <a accesskey="2" 
          href="" rel="nofollow">
            View article online</a>
        <span class="black">Hubmed:</span> 
        <a accesskey="3" href="" rel="nofollow">
          View article online</a>
</table> citation info

This is from a detail page on for a book.

<a name='citing' ></a><b>This book cites 10 books:</b><br />
    <a href="">
      The New Faculty Member: Supporting and Fostering Professional Development (Jossey-Bass Higher and Adult Education Series)
    by Robert Boice on
    <a href="/gp/reader/0780311361/ref=sib_ab_dp_pg/002-6751255-9290456?%5Fencoding=UTF8&p=S04X&checkSum=vptuDOjULIOadVNe9UFX36fnIKktwxxQOeBmFQupyrA%3D">page 156</a>, and <a href="/gp/reader/0780311361/ref=sib_ab_dp_pg/002-6751255-9290456?%5Fencoding=UTF8&p=S088&checkSum=vptuDOjULINm2bvcL37hZR%2BcnJi%2F9hhUyu1%2FlXWnOM8%3D">
      page 275
    <a href="" >Science, Technology and Society</a>
    by Robert E. McGinn on
    <a href="/gp/reader/0780311361/ref=sib_ab_dp_pg/002-6751255-9290456?%5Fencoding=UTF8&p=S023&checkSum=vptuDOjULIMgFwAeeT8gWiDHmklkxfy%2BGug%2BAS7UI2Y%3D">page 54</a></li><li>

PubMed Medical Journal Example

Still another example of markup in the wild, coming from a search for the PubMed ID "18188677" in

Note the title attribute with the expanded version of the canonical abbreviation for the journal.

<div id="pmid_18188677" class="rprt">
    <div class="rprtNum">
        <input type="checkbox" id="UidCheckBox" value="18188677"/>
        <b>1: </b>
    <div class="rprtTitlSec">
        <div class="rprtLinks">
            <span style="white-space: nowrap;">
                <a href="..." class="dblinks">Related Articles</a>
        <a class="authors" href="...">Chhay JS, Vargas CA, McCorvie TJ, Fridovich-Keil JL, Timson DJ.</a>
    <div class="clearer"/>
    <div class="rprtMainSec">
        <a class="icon" href="...">
            <img border="0" title="Abstract" id="Abstract_18188677" alt="Abstract" src="..."/>
        <div class="summary">
            <div class="title">Analysis of UDP-galactose 4'-epimerase mutations associated with the
                intermediate form of type III galactosaemia.</div>
            <div class="source">
                <abbr title="Journal of inherited metabolic disease" class="journalname">
                    J Inherit Metab Dis
                </abbr>. 2008 Jan 14; [Epub ahead of print] 
            <div class="PMid">PMID: 18188677 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]</div>

Wikipedia Examples

Wikipedia Book

<li id="_note-8"><b><a href="#_ref-8" title="">^</a></b> 
<i>Tuva Or Bust!</i>, Ralph Leighton, W. W. Norton & Company, 2000, 
<a href="/w/index.php?title=Special:Booksources&isbn=0393320693" 
    class="internal">ISBN 0393320693</a>

Wikipedia Journal Article

<li id="_note-science1982-Dickerson">
<b><a href="#_ref-science1982-Dickerson_0" title="">^</a></b>
 <cite style="font-style:normal">Dickerson et al. (1982). "The Anatomy of A-, B-, and Z-DNA". 
 <i>Science</i> <b>216</b>: 475-485. DOI: 10.1126/science.7071593.</cite>
 <sup><a href="..." class="external text" title="...">PubMed</a></sup></li>

Wikipedia Court Case

<td><i><a href="/wiki/Perfect_10_v._Google_Inc" title="Perfect 10 v. Google Inc">Perfect 10 v. Google Inc</a></i></td>
<td>CASE NO. CV 04-9484 AHM (SHx)</td>
<td><a href="/wiki/Central_District_of_California" title="Central District of California">CDCA</a> 2006</td>
<td>Thumbnails in Web searches that impinged upon market for images of that size were not fair use.</td>

Wikipedia US Law

<li><cite id="endnote_FISA" style="font-style: normal;">
<a href="#ref_FISA" title=""><b>↑</b></a></cite>  
<a href="" 
    class="external text" title="...">50 U.S.C Chapter 36 Foreign Intelligence Surveillance</a>
     The complete text of the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act

The sections of the law are cited inline, without markup, as "50 U.S.C. §1801(a) (4),(5),(6)" for example.

Wikipedia Conference Presentation

<h3>Conference presentation by Pillar</h3>
<a href="" 
class="external text" title="...">Foreign and Domestic Publics and the Counter-terrorism Effort</a>
 (Duke University, 21-2 March 2003).</li>

Wikipedia Primary Historical Source

<li>U.S. War Dept., <a href="" 
                         class="external text" title="...">
<i>The War of the Rebellion: a Compilation of the Official Records of the Union and Confederate Armies</i></a>,
 U.S. Government Printing Office, 1880–1901. 70 very large volumes of letters and reports written by both armies. 
 Online at <a href="" 
                 class="external autonumber" title="...">[6]</a>

Wikipedia U.S. Patent

<li><a href=",405,829" class="external text" 
    title=",405,829">U.S. Patent 4,405,829</a>:
    The <a href="/wiki/RSA" title="RSA">RSA</a> patent, a famous software patent on the ground-breaking 
    and highly unobvious algorithm for public key encryption, widely used for secure communications 
    in many industries nowdays</li>

Citation of an Online Resource

David Tulloch, "Many, Many Maps" First Monday markup for the following citation:

E.S. Raymond, 2000. “The Cathedral and the Bazaar,” version 3.0, at, accessed 18 October 2006.

<p>E.S. Raymond, 2000. &#147;The Cathedral and the Bazaar,&#148; version 3.0, at 
<a href=""></a>, 
accessed 18 October 2006.</p>

T. Mills Kelly, "The Role of Technology in World History Teaching." markup for the following citation:

Hitler Historical Museum, Accessed March 21, 2006.

<p><a href="#_ftnref5" name="_ftn5" title=""><sup>5</sup></a> <i>Hitler
Historical Museum</i>, <a href=""
target="2nd"></a>. Accessed March 21, 2006.</p> generated output

EPrints uses the DC terms for information in the head element of an entry:

    <title>ECS EPrints Service - Winnowing Ontologies based on Application Use</title>
    <link href="" rel="schema.DC" />
<meta content="Winnowing Ontologies based on Application Use" name="DC.title" />
<meta content="Alani, Harith" name="DC.creator" />
<meta content="Harris, Stephen" name="DC.creator" />
<meta content="O'Neil, Ben" name="DC.creator" />
<meta content="The requirements of specific ... that ontology." name="DC.description" />
<meta content="2006-01-01" name="" />
<meta content="Conference or Workshop Item" name="DC.type" />
<meta content="" name="DC.identifier" />
<meta content="pdf" name="DC.format" />
<link title="Full Text (application/pdf)" href="" 
    class="fulltext" type="application/pdf" rel="alternate" />

And the following markup for the page's HTML:

<td valign="top"><div class="page">
<h1 class="pagetitle">
<span class="field_title">Winnowing Ontologies based on Application Use</span></h1>
<p class="intro">
<span class="citation">
<span class="field_authors">Alani, H., Harris, S. and O'Neil, B.</span> 
(<span class="field_year">2006</span>)
<span class="field_title">Winnowing Ontologies based on Application Use</span>. 
  In <i>Proceedings of 
<span class="field_conference">3rd European Semantic Web Conference (ESWC)</span></i>, 
<span class="field_confloc">Budva, Montenegro</span>.

BibDesk default HTML export example

Due to some recent improvements, BibDesk allows extensive user customization of its HTML output. It has had an HTML template system since 2004, and the default template hasn't changed much since then. Here is the default template, which I wrote long before I knew what little I know now of semantic HTML - Mike.

<div class="content">
<dt class="Key" id="<$citeKey/>"><$citeKey/><dt />
<dd class="Pub">
	<span class="Title"><$fields.Title/></span><br />
	<span class="Author"><$pubAuthorsForDisplay/></span><br />
	<span class="Journal"><$fields.Journal/></span> 
	<span class="Volume"><$fields.Volume/></span> 
	<span class="Pages"><$fields.Pages/></span> 
	(<span class="Date"><$fields.Year/></span>)<br />
	<span class="Url"><a href="<$fields.Url/>"><$fields.Url/></a></span><br />
	<div class="Abstract"><$fields.Abstract/></div>
<dd />

Here's a popular modification to the default template, also from 2004, which was used to make this annotated reading list.

<p class="trigger">
    <table width="100%"  border="0" cellspacing="0" cellpadding="0">
            <td width="20%"><span class="Author"><$pubFields.Author/></span></td>
            <td width="5%"><span class="Year"><$pubFields.Year/></span></td>
            <td width="55%"><span class="Title"><$pubFields.Title/></span></td>
            <td width="10%"><span class="url"><$pubType/></span></td>               
<span class="url"> 
<a href="<$pubFields.Url/>"> <img src="pdf_icon.gif" border="0"> <$citeKey/> ~ <$pubFields.Url/></a>

<p class="Annote">Abstract:<br><$pubFields.Abstract/>
<br>Notes: <br><$pubFields.Annote/><br>
<br>Keywords: <$pubFields.Keywords/>
<br>BibTeX: <$bibTeXString/> <br>

Note that the tags that look like <$foo/> are templating entries and are replaced by values from each cited publication object.

OCLC WorldCat Online


<div id="item">
<table cellspacing="0">
<td class="illustration"><img src="/wcpa/servlet/DCARead?standardNo=0062515861&standardNoType=1" alt="Weaving the Web : the original design and ultimate destiny of the World Wide Web by its inventor " /></td>
<td class="info">
<h1 class="title"> Weaving the Web : the original design and ultimate destiny of the World Wide Web by its inventor </h1>
<p class="author"><strong>by    <a href="/search?q=au%3ATim+Berners-Lee&qt=hot_author" title="Search for more by this author">Tim Berners-Lee</a>; 
<a href="/search?q=au%3AMark+Fischetti&qt=hot_author" title="Search for more by this author">Mark Fischetti</a></strong></p>
<ul class="detailed">
<li class="type"><strong>Type: </strong>English : <img src="/wcpa/images/icon-bks.gif" height=16 width=16 alt="" title="Book" class="icn"/> <nobr>Book
<li class="publisher"><strong>Publisher: </strong> San Francisco : HarperSanFrancisco, ©1999.</li>
<li class="isbn"><strong>ISBN: </strong>0062515861  006251587X</li>
<li class="oclc"><strong>OCLC: </strong>41238513</li>
</ul><ul class="subjects"><li><strong>Subjects: </strong><a href="/search?q=su%3AWorld+Wide+Web+History.&qt=hot_subject" title="Search for more with this subject">World Wide Web -- History.</a> | <a href="/search?q=su%3ABerners-Lee%2C+Tim.&qt=hot_subject" title="Search for more with this subject">Berners-Lee, Tim.</a> | <a href="/search?q=su%3ABerners-Lee%2C+Tim.&qt=hot_subject" title="Search for more with this subject">Berners-Lee, Tim.</a> | <a HREF="/oclc/41238513?tab=subjects" title="More ...">More ...</a></li></ul>
<td class="bookmark">
<a href="javascript:bookmarksite(document.title, '');" onmouseover="MM_displayStatusMsg('Bookmark This Page');return document.MM_returnValue;" onmouseout="MM_displayStatusMsg('');return document.MM_returnValue;">Bookmark</a> | <a href="/oclc/41238513">Permalink</a>
<br><br><span class="Z3988" title="url_ver=Z39.88-2004&rfr_id=info:sid/"></span>


<div id="item">
<table cellspacing="0">
<td class="info">
<h1 class="title"> Cataloging & classification quarterly.</h1>
<ul class="detailed">
<li class="type"><strong>Type: </strong>English : <img src="/wcpa/images/icon-ser.gif" height=16 width=16 alt="" title="Serial Publication" class="icn"/> <nobr>Serial Publication
</nobr> : <nobr>Periodical</nobr>
<nobr><span title="Internet Resource"><img height=16 width=16 border=0 align="absmiddle" src="/wcpa/images/icon-url.gif" alt="Internet Resource"> Internet Resource</span>
<li class="publisher"><strong>Publisher: </strong> New York, N.Y. : Haworth Press, [©1981]-</li>
<li class="isbn"><strong>ISSN: </strong>0163-9374 1544-4554</li>
<li class="oclc"><strong>OCLC: </strong>4538259</li>
</ul><ul class="subjects"><li><strong>Subjects: </strong><a href="/search?q=su%3ACataloging+Periodicals.&qt=hot_subject" title="Search for more with this subject">Cataloging -- Periodicals.</a> | <a href="/search?q=su%3AClassification+Books+Periodicals.&qt=hot_subject" title="Search for more with this subject">Classification -- Books -- Periodicals.</a> | <a href="/search?q=su%3AClassification+Periodicals.&qt=hot_subject" title="Search for more with this subject">Classification -- Periodicals.</a> | <a HREF="/oclc/4538259?tab=subjects" title="More ...">More ...</a></li></ul>
<td class="bookmark">
<a href="javascript:bookmarksite(document.title, '');" onmouseover="MM_displayStatusMsg('Bookmark This Page');return document.MM_returnValue;" onmouseout="MM_displayStatusMsg('');return document.MM_returnValue;">Bookmark</a> | <a href="/oclc/4538259">Permalink</a>
<br><br><span class="Z3988" title="url_ver=Z39.88-2004&rfr_id=info:sid/"></span>

Insert non-formatted text hereInsert non-formatted text here

Implied schema

Many of the examples have simple citations in <p>, <div>, <td> etc with no further coding; i.e. <td>Book Title. Author. Publisher, date.</td>

The following lists the most common markup:

Book Titles:

  • id="title"
  • class="producttitle"
  • class="title"
  • id="lblTitle"
  • h1
  • h2
  • <dt></dt>
  • <cite></cite>
  • <strong></strong>
  • <i></i>

Book Series:

  • id="serieslbl"
  • class="productsubtitle"


  • id="subtitle"
  • class="productsubtitle"
  • class="sub_title"
  • id="lblSubTitle"
  • class="book_subline"
  • class="subTitle"


  • id="credit"
  • class="productauthor"
  • class="author"
  • Authors (table cell)
  • class="byline"
  • class="creator"
  • class="role"
  • Inside <dd></dd> with other elements
  • <li></li>

Publication Date:

  • id="pubdate"
  • Publication Date: (table cell)
  • id="pnlPubDate"
  • Publication Date:
  • class="publicationdate"
  • Published/Released:
  • class="date" w/ class="year", class="month", class="day"
  • Inside <dd></dd> with other elements


  • class="publisher"
  • class="origin" (publication location)


  • class="volume"

Issue Number:

  • class="issue"

Page Numbers:

  • class="locator" (inclusive page numbers)


  • class="isbn"
  • id="pnlIsbn"
  • id="lblIsbn"
  • class="isbnNumber"

Book Edition:

  • class="edition"
  • Inside <dd></dd> with other elements

Citeproc XHTML output

I'm the author of the citeproc project, which includes a micro-format of sorts (though I never thought of it as such) in its XHTML output mode. See here for an example. The difference compared to the bibtex-derived model is that is a) more generic and b) hierachical.

It would be possible, certainly, to do a flat model if for some reason there was a good technical reason not to go hierarchical (though is there?)

The burden of proof is on *going* hierarchical, rather than a simpler flat solution. Complexity must be justified, not simplicity.

... but then you need to think outside the BibTeX box in any case. Any model of this sort ought to be able to handle legal citations, magazine articles, patents, etc. etc.; not just a narrow range of BibTeX types.

Per the microformats process, microformats are designed to support existing practice on the Web, anything else should be omitted from at least the first version.


This does NOT define a format, but instead shows how the format should be displayed. This is something out of the direct scope of this project. CSS styles will handle the look-and-feel of the text, and the author can put it in any order they choose. These links are mentioned for two reasons, one is informative, the other is so we know at least meet the minimum properties that are used in the styles.

See also