hcalendar-de

Jump to: navigation, search

hCalendar ist ein enfaches, offenes Format zur Auszeichnung von Kalender- und Veranstaltungsdaten. Es basiert auf dem iCalendar-Standard (RFC2445) und passt diesen auf die Benutzung in HTML oder XHTML, Atom, RSS oder anderen XML-Dialekten an. hCalendar ist eines von vielen Mikroformaten.

Wer mit dem Schreiben eines hCalendar-Eintrags beginnen will, benutze den hCalendar creator oder folge den Autorenhinweisen für hCalendar.

Contents


Spezifikation

Herausgeber 
Tantek Çelik (Technorati, Inc)
Autoren 
Tantek Çelik (Technorati, Inc)
Brian Suda

Copyright

Mit der Veröffentlichung auf den Seiten der Autoren (Tantek Çelik, Brian Suda) wurde diese Spezifikation als public domain freigegeben.

Public Domain Contribution Requirement. Since the author(s) released this work into the public domain, in order to maintain this work's public domain status, all contributors to this page agree to release their contributions to this page to the public domain as well. Contributors may indicate their agreement by adding the public domain release template to their user page per the Voluntary Public Domain Declarations instructions. Unreleased contributions may be reverted/removed.

Patente

This specification is subject to a royalty free patent policy, e.g. per the W3C Patent Policy, and IETF RFC3667 & RFC3668.

Danksagungen

Unser Dank geht an:

Einführung

Der iCalendar-Standard (RFC2445) steht auf vielen Plattformen zur Verfügung.

Blogger besprechen oft Termine und Veranstaltungen in ihren Blogs. Egal, ob es sich dabei um bevorstehende Termine oder Nachbesprechungen bereits stattgefunden habender Veranstaltungen handelt, eine einfache Struktur macht es möglich, dass diese Beiträge und Diskussionen auch von Spidern und anderen Aggregatoren gelesen und in das iCalendar-Format überführt werden können. Somit sind sie in Programmen, die den iCalendar-Standard unterstützen, weiterverwendbar.

Diese Spezifikation führt das hCalendar-Format ein, welches den iCalendar-Standard in sematischem HTML abbildet. Autoren von Webinhalten, zum Beispiel Blogger, können mit hCalendar Termine auf ihren Seiten auszeichnen, die so ausgezeichneten Termine gesondert mit CSS formatieren sowie auf diese Informationen mit Programmen zugreifen, ohne diese Informationen noch einmal --beispielsweise in einer Datei-- gesondert zur Verfügung stellen zu müssen.

The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT", "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this document are to be interpreted as described in RFC 2119.

Designprinzipien für semantisches XHTML

Note: the Semantic XHTML Design Principles were written primarily within the context of developing hCard and hCalendar, thus it may be easier to understand these principles in the context of the hCard design methodology (i.e. read that first). Tantek

XHTML is built on XML, and thus XHTML based formats can be used not only for convenient display presentation, but also for general purpose data exchange. In many ways, XHTML based formats exemplify the best of both HTML and XML worlds. However, when building XHTML based formats, it helps to have a guiding set of principles.

  1. Reuse the schema (names, objects, properties, values, types, hierarchies, constraints) as much as possible from pre-existing, established, well-supported standards by reference. Avoid restating constraints expressed in the source standard. Informative mentions are ok.
    1. For types with multiple components, use nested elements with class names equivalent to the names of the components.
    2. Plural components are made singular, and thus multiple nested elements are used to represent multiple text values that are comma-delimited.
  2. Use the most accurately precise semantic XHTML building block for each object etc.
  3. Otherwise use a generic structural element (e.g. <span> or <div>), or the appropriate contextual element (e.g. an <li> inside a <ul> or <ol>).
  4. Use class names based on names from the original schema, unless the semantic XHTML building block precisely represents that part of the original schema. If names in the source schema are case-insensitive, then use an all lowercase equivalent. Components names implicit in prose (rather than explicit in the defined schema) should also use lowercase equivalents for ease of use. Spaces in component names become dash '-' characters.
  5. Finally, if the format of the data according to the original schema is too long and/or not human-friendly, use <abbr> instead of a generic structural element, and place the literal data into the 'title' attribute (where abbr expansions go), and the more brief and human readable equivalent into the element itself. Further informative explanation of this use of <abbr>: Human vs. ISO8601 dates problem solved

Für die Praxis wird darauf hingewiesen, dass die Unterstützung des Microsoft Internet Explorers für <abbr> fehlt und daher Container-Elemente für <abbr> benötigt werden.

Format

Allgemein

Der iCalendar-Standard (isric.org) bildet die Grundlage für hCalendar.

Anmerkung: the editor and authors of this specification are tracking the "iCal-Basic" effort and intend to base the core hCalendar profile on iCal-Basic. See references for a link to the current draft.

Die grundlegende Regel ist, die Namen der iCalendarobjekte und -eigenschaften mit Kleinschreibung in hCalendar weiter zu verwenden und die Verschachtelung der iCalendar-Struktur direkt mittels XHTML-Elementen abzubilden.

Root Class Name

Der Root Class Name von hCalendar ist "vcalendar". Ein mit diesem Namen klassifiziertes Element wird hCalendar genannt.

Der Root Class Name eines Termins ist "vevent". Ein mit diesem Namen klassifiziertes Element wird hCalendar event genannt.

Um die Auszeichnung mit hCalendar zu vereinfachen, werden beide Namen --"vcalendar" und "vevent"-- als Root Class Names angesehen. Falls ein Dokument Elemente der Klasse "vevent" aber keine Elemente der Klasse "vcalendar" enthält, wird angenommen, dass das ganze Dokument zur Klasse "vcalendar" gehört.

Ein vevent-Element wird für jeden einzelnen Termin benötigt.

Einzelne Eigenschaften

Die Einträge eines hCalendars werden durch im hCalendar befindliche Elemente, die mit den folgend aufgezählten Klassennamen ausgezeichnet sind, repräsentiert. Einige Eigenschaften haben Untereigenschaften. Diese werden durch Elemente innerhalb der Elemente der Eigenschaften dargestellt.

Eigenschaftenliste

hCalendar Eigenschaften (Untereigenschaften sind wie hier in Klammern gesetzt)

vorgeschrieben:

Optional:

Weitere, genauere semantische Entsprechungen

Einige Eigenschaften können noch konkreter ausgezeichnet werden. Die entsprechenden Informationen erfahren weitere Aufbereitungen, z. B.:

Singular vs. Plural Properties

For properties which are singular (e.g. "N" and "FN" from vCard), the first descendant element with that class SHOULD take effect, any others being ignored.

For properties which can be plural (e.g. "TEL" from vCard), each class instance SHOULD create a instance of that property. Plural properties with subtypes (e.g. TEL with WORK, HOME, CELL from vCard) can be optimized to share a common element for the property itself, with each instance of subtype being an appropriately classed descendant of the property element.

Plural Properties Singularized

Since plural property names become their singular equivalents, even if the original plural property permitted only a single value with multiple components, those multiple components are represented each with their own singularly named property and the the property is effectively multivalued and subject to the above treatment of multivalued properties.

Menschen- und Maschinenlesbarkeit

Wenn ein <abbr>-Element für eine Eigenschaft benutzt wird, wird im 'title'-Attribut des <abbr>-Elements der zur maschinellen Auswertung vorgesehene Wert gesetzt. Der Inhalt des Elements selbst enthält hingegen den für Menschen vorgesehenen Text. Diese Spezifikation empfiehlt, <abbr>-Elemente für folgende iCalendar-Eigenschaften zu benutzen:

Beispiel 1

Ein Terminbeispiel in iCalendar-Notation:


BEGIN:VCALENDAR
PRODID:-//XYZproduct//EN
VERSION:2.0
BEGIN:VEVENT
URL:http://www.web2con.com/
DTSTART:20071005
DTEND:20071020
SUMMARY:Web 2.0 Conference
LOCATION:Argent Hotel\, San Francisco\, CA
END:VEVENT
END:VCALENDAR

... und eine mögliche Entsprechung im hCalendar-Format mit einigen angebrachten Optimierungen. See hcalendar-example1-steps for the derivation.

<div class="vevent">
 <a class="url" href="http://www.web2con.com/">http://www.web2con.com/</a>
  <span class="summary">Web 2.0 Conference</span>: 
  <abbr class="dtstart" title="2007-10-05">October 5</abbr>-
  <abbr class="dtend" title="2007-10-20">19</abbr>,
 at the <span class="location">Argent Hotel, San Francisco, CA</span>
 </div>

was wie folgt ausgegeben werden kann:


http://www.web2con.com/  Web 2.0 Conference: October 5- 19, at the Argent Hotel, San Francisco, CA


Dieser Eintrag ist im Quelltext dieser Seite enthalten und wird deshalb von Programmen, die Mikroformate aus Webseiten lesen können (Parser), hier auch gefunden.

Beispiel 2

Das folgende Beispiel zeigt ein angesetztes Treffen, welches am 12. März 1998 um 08:30 EST (Eastern Standard Time) beginnt und am selben Tag um 09:30 Ortszeit endet.

     BEGIN:VCALENDAR
     BEGIN:VEVENT
     UID:guid-1.host1.com
     DTSTAMP:19980309T231000Z
     DESCRIPTION:Project XYZ Review Meeting
     SUMMARY:XYZ Project Review
     DTSTART:19980312T133000Z
     DTEND:19980312T143000Z
     LOCATION:1CP Conference Room 4350
     END:VEVENT
     END:VCALENDAR

Das Gleiche in hCalendar:

<div class="vevent">
<h3 class="summary">XYZ Project Review</h3>
<p class="description">Project XYZ Review Meeting</p>
<p>To be held on <abbr class="dtstart" title="1998-03-12T08:30:00-05:00">12 March 1998 from 8:30am EST</abbr> 
until <abbr class="dtend" title="1998-03-12T09:30:00-05:00">9:30am EST</abbr></p>
<p>Location: <span class="location">1CP Conference Room 4350</span></p>
<small>Booked by: <span class="uid">guid-1.host1.com</span> on 
<abbr class="dtstamp" title="19980309T231000Z">9 Mar 1998 6:00pm</abbr></small>
</div>

Dies könnte so ausgegeben werden:


XYZ Project Review

Project XYZ Review Meeting

To be held on 12 March 1998 from 8:30am EST until 9:30am EST

Location: 1CP Conference Room 4350

Booked by: guid-1.host1.com on 9 Mar 1998 6:00pm

Anmerkung 1: The product information is not necessary since hCalendar is an interchange format. When transforming hCalendar back into iCalendar, the transforming engine should add its own product ID.

Anmerkung 2: A surrounding <span class="vcalendar"> element is optional, and is left out as such. It is optional since the context of a vcalendar is implied when a vevent is encountered. The implied context/scope is that of the document. Authors may explicitly use elements with class="vcalendar" to wrap sets of vevents that all belong to the same calendar, e.g. when publishing multiple calendars on the same page.

Anmerkung 3: The version information is unnecessary in hCalendar markup directly since the version will be defined by the profile of hCalendar that is used/referred to in the 'profile' attribute of the <head> element.

Anmerkung 4: ISO8601 dates (required by iCalendar) are not very human friendly. In addition, the year is often understood implicitly by humans from the context. Thus <abbr> elements are used to simultaneously provide a human friendly date and/or time in the visible contents of the element, while placing the respective machine parsable comprehensive ISO8601 datetime in the 'title' attribute. The notation YYYY-MM-DDThh:mm:ss should be used for better readability, following the format of RFC 3339.

Anmerkung 5: The difference between the DTEND ISO8601 date (2005-10-08) and the human readable date (7) is NOT a mistake. DTEND is exclusive, meaning, that the event ends just before the DTEND. Thus for events which start on one day and end on another day, the DTEND date must be specified as the day after the day that a human would say is the last day of the event.

Anmerkung 6: The location in this example contains implicit structure (venue name, city, state) which could be marked up explicitly as an hCard. See hCalendar brainstorming: hCard locations for a informative explanation of how to do this.

Buttons

Don't forget that you can add one of our buttons to the page, to indicate the presence of hCalendar microformats. For example: microformat_hcalendar.png. If you can link it back to this page (or even page on your website, about your use of the microformat), so much the better!

More Examples

See hCalendar examples for more examples, including examples from iCalendar RFC 2445 converted into hCalendar.

Examples in the wild

This section is informative. The number of hCalendar examples in the wild has expanded far beyond the capacity of being kept inline in this specification. They have been moved to a separate page.

See hCalendar Examples in the wild.

Implementations

This section is informative. The number of hCalendar implementations has also expanded beyond the capacity of keeping them inline. They have been moved to a separate page.

See hCalendar Implementations.

References

Normative References

Informative References

Specifications That Use hCalendar

Related Work

Further Reading

Right now people can do that by publishing .ics files, but it's not trivial to do so, and it's work on the part of other people to look at them. If it's not HTML hanging off our friend's home page that can be viewed in any browser on a public terminal in a library, the bar to entry is too high and it's useless.

Related Pages

This specification is a work in progress. As additional aspects are discussed, understood, and written, they will be added. These thoughts, issues, and questions are kept in separate pages.

Categories

hcalendar-de was last modified: Saturday, February 18th, 2017

Views