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This document represents a draft microformat specification. Although drafts are somewhat mature in the development process, the stability of this document cannot be guaranteed, and implementers should be prepared to keep abreast of future developments and changes. Watch this wiki page, or follow discussions on the #microformats IRC channel to stay up-to-date. hResume is a microformat for publishing resumes and CVs. hResume is one of several open microformat standards suitable for embedding in HTML, XHTML, Atom, RSS, and arbitrary XML.

Want to get started with writing an hResume? Use the hResume Creator to create your hResume and publish it, or follow the hResume authoring tips to add hResume markup to your web page or blog.

Microformats Draft Specification

Tantek Çelik and Glenn Jones
Previous Editor & Author
Ryan King
See acknowledgments.

Microformats copyright and patents statements apply.

The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT", "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this document are to be interpreted as described in RFC 2119.


Draft, version 0.1.


Semantic XHTML Design Principles

XHTML is built on XML, and thus XHTML-based formats can be used not only for convenient display presentation, but also for general-purpose data exchange. In many ways, XHTML-based formats exemplify the best of both HTML and XML worlds. However, when building XHTML-based formats, it helps to have a guiding set of principles.

  1. Reuse the schema (names, objects, properties, values, types, hierarchies, constraints) as much as possible from pre-existing, established, well-supported standards by reference. Avoid restating constraints expressed in the source standard. Informative mentions are ok.
    1. For types with multiple components, use nested elements with class names equivalent to the names of the components.
    2. Plural components are made singular, and thus multiple nested elements are used to represent multiple text values that are comma-delimited.
  2. Use the most accurately precise semantic XHTML building block for each object etc.
  3. Otherwise use a generic structural element (e.g. <span> or <div>), or the appropriate contextual element (e.g. an <li> inside a <ul> or <ol>).
  4. Use class names based on names from the original schema, unless the semantic XHTML building block precisely represents that part of the original schema. If names in the source schema are case-insensitive, then use an all lowercase equivalent. Components names implicit in prose (rather than explicit in the defined schema) should also use lowercase equivalents for ease of use. Spaces in component names become dash '-' characters.
  5. Finally, if the format of the data according to the original schema is too long and/or not human-friendly, use <abbr> instead of a generic structural element, and place the literal data into the 'title' attribute (where abbr expansions go), and the more brief and human-readable equivalent into the element itself. Further informative explanation of this use of <abbr>: Human vs. ISO8601 dates problem solved


In General

The hResume format is based on a set of fields common to numerous resumes published today on the web. Where possible field names have been chosen and reused from preexisting microformats.


The hResume schema consists of the following:

  • hResume
    • summary. optional. text.
    • contact info. required. MUST use hCard; SHOULD use <address> + hCard.
    • experience. optional. One or more hcalendar events with the class name 'experience', with an embedded hCard indicating the job title, name of company, address of company etc.
    • education. optional One or more hcalendar events with the class name 'education', with an embedded hCard indicating the name of school, address of school etc.
    • skills. optional. phrases or keywords using the rel-tag microformat with the class name 'skill'.
    • affiliations. optional. the class name affiliation along with an hcard of the organization
    • publications. optional. One or more citations. Use cite tag.

Field details

The fields of the hResume schema represent the following:

  • hresume:: root class name
  • summary:: The class name summary is used to mark up an overview of qualifications and objectives.
  • contact:: Current contact info in an hCard; SHOULD use <address> with hCard when possible.
  • education:: the class name 'education' is applied to an hcalendar event.
  • experience:: the class name 'experience' is applied to an hcalendar event. Job titles/positions should use an hCard.
  • skill:: An hResume may be tagged using the rel-tag microformat and the 'skill' class name.
  • affiliation:: The class name affiliation is used along with an hcard of the organization
  • publications:: just use <cite>. When there is a citation microformat, then that can be used in combination with the cite element to further markup the components of the citation.

XMDP Profile


This section is informative.

  • ...



An example summary:

<p class="summary">
  I have 10 years experience with all Web 2.0 technologies– I've been working with Ajax since 1996, 
  designing with pastels while others will still using tiled background images and frames...


<address class="vcard">
  <span class="fn">Pedro Sanchez</span>
  <span class="adr">
    <span class="street-address">123 Fake St.</span>
    <span class="locality">Preston</span>, <span class="region">Idaho</span> <span class="postal-code">83263</span>
  <span>Email: <a class="email" href=""></a></span>
  <span>Homepage: <a class="url" href=""></a></span>
  <span>Phone: <span class="tel">+01.208.555.4567</span></span>


<ol class="vcalendar">
  <li class="education vevent">
    <div class="summary vcard">
      <a class="url fn org" href="">Preston High School</a>
      <div class="adr">
        <span class="locality">SomeCity</span>, 
        <abbr class="region" title="Alaska">AK</abbr>
    (<abbr class="dtstart" title="2001-01-24">2001</abbr> - <abbr class="dtend" title="2005-05-25">2005</abbr>)



A basic experience event:

<ol class="vcalendar">
  <li class="experience vevent">
    <span class="summary">President</span>,
    <span class="location">Preston High School</span>,
    <abbr class="dtstart" title="2004-09-01">May 2004</abbr> - <abbr title="2005-05-25">present</abbr>

Job Titles

To express one or more job titles/positions in the same experience event you should use one or more hCards. hCard requires the fn ("formatted name") field, but it isn't customary to repeat your name for every job title you mark up in hresume. So, you may use an <object> and the class name 'include' with a reference to the fn somewhere else on the page.

Currently, the recommended way to reference includes within microformats is to use a hyperlink with class="include". See include-pattern for details.

For example, this hCard refers to another hCard:

Using <a>:

<span class="vcard">
  <a href="#pedro-name" class="include" title="Pedro Sanchez"></a>
  <span class="org">Preston High School</span>
  <span class="title">Class President</span>

Using <object>:

<span class="vcard">
  <object  data="#pedro-name" class="include"></object>
  <span class="org">Preston High School</span>
  <span class="title">Class President</span>

Where "pedro-name" is the id attribute value of the "fn n" element of the contact hCard at the top of the page, e.g. (shown here as a verbose hCard for purposes of illustration that the reference may be to a subtree, not just a text node):

<address class="vcard">
  <span class="fn n" id="pedro-name">
    <span class="given-name">Pedro</span>
    <span class="family-name">Sanchez</span>

This method of hCard property indirection via an object element has been generalized to apply to any/all string/text properties in hCard.

Note: the object data attribute MUST be a local ID reference. External references (which would require a consuming application to load an external resource) are not supported by this method.


Some sample skills tags:

I have skills in <a class="skill" rel="tag" href="">bow hunting</a> 
and <a class="skill" rel="tag" href="">nunchucks</a>.


<span class="affiliation vcard"><span class="fn org">National Honor Society</span></span>


<cite>Breeding Ligers for Fun and Magic</cite>, Idaho Press, 2004.

Examples in the wild

See hresume-examples-in-wild


This section is informative.

The following implementations have been developed which either generate or parse hResumes. If you have an hResume implementation, feel free to add it to the top of this list. Once the list grows too big, we'll make a separate wiki page like hresume-implementations.

  • WP Resume is an out-of-the-box solution to publish your resume on your WordPress site and outputs the resume in an hResume compatible template.
  • cvmatch4jobs has implemented hResume import for publicly published CV's. A Career site for 3 UK building and proprety magazines from publishers UBM. 19 Jan 2010.
  • CareerCV has implemented hResume import for publicly published CV's. A Career site for major UK design magazines from publishers Centaur Communications. 19 Jan 2010.
  • Madgex has implemented hResume to Microsoft Word and PDF conversion API. 13 Dec 2009.
  • Guardian Jobs has implemented hResume import for publicly published CV's. 4 Sep 2009.
  • Anthony Johnston has implemented hResume (Creation and Import) in the Antix CV Builder, an example resume using this site can be found here
    • The example resume is invalid; job titles are marked with an hCard that is missing a "fn" (either directly or via object). --Gazza 04:23, 1 May 2007 (PDT)
      • This is fixed now --Ant 00:38, 8 Dec 2007 (GMT)
  • The Spur team has created an hResume WordPress plugin located at hResume Plugin. See an example of the hResume markup here. Neat feature of the hResume plugin is that it automatically creates a new page for the resume - no cutting and pasting...
  • Spur also created a standalone hResume Creator located at hResume Creator. The creator will generate hResume markup ready to cut and paste into your webpage.


  • Tantek: I release all my contributions to this specification into the public domain and I encourage the other authors to do so as well.
  • RyanKing: I release all of my contributions to the public domain.

Per the above, and the public domain release on the author, RyanKing's, user page this specification is released into the public domain.

Public Domain Contribution Requirement. Since the author(s) released this work into the public domain, in order to maintain this work's public domain status, all contributors to this page agree to release their contributions to this page to the public domain as well. Contributors may indicate their agreement by adding the public domain release template to their user page per the Voluntary Public Domain Declarations instructions. Unreleased contributions may be reverted/removed.


This specification is subject to a royalty free patent policy, e.g. per the W3C Patent Policy, and IETF RFC3667 & RFC3668.


Normative References

Informative References

  • @TODO



Related Pages



hResume is the classic microformats predecessor for h-resume. Work on hResume is documented at the following for historical purposes. Much of the general discussion and research likely still applies.

The hResume specification is a work in progress. As additional aspects are discussed, understood, and written, they will be added. These thoughts, issues, and questions are kept in separate pages.

Further Reading