citation-brainstorming

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rollaro
rollaro
<h1> Citation Brainstorming </h1>
<h1> Citation Brainstorming </h1>
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{{TOC-right}}
 
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== Contributors ==
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Part of the overall effort to develop a [[citation]] microformat.
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* ...
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{{TOC-right}}
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* ... (a bunch of good folks!)
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* Tantek Çelik
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* Tim White
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* Michael McCracken
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* Brian Suda
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* [[User:AndyMabbett|Andy Mabbett]]
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== Use Cases ==
== Use Cases ==
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To focus the discussion, please add use cases below that will help show what problems the citation microformat will be solving.
To focus the discussion, please add use cases below that will help show what problems the citation microformat will be solving.
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I've included two, focusing on consuming information - I've assumed that use cases for generating microformatted content would just involve the desire to enable your content to be consumed better, but I'm interested to see if there's something I'm missing here -Mike
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Use cases for both publishing and consuming citation information can help to focus citation brainstorming on efforts that provide real world utility to users.
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For now, please add any uses cases you think of, however common or obscure (feel free to note opinions as to expected/known frequency of use of such use cases).
=== Acquiring reference information from the web ===
=== Acquiring reference information from the web ===
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A user either finds an author's papers page, or is viewing the results of a search and would like to import the information about the displayed papers into their local reference database, for the purposes of cataloging things they've read, adding notes, and using the information to generate later citations, potentially in other forms, such as BibTeX or Docbook, for inclusion in a publication of their own.
A user either finds an author's papers page, or is viewing the results of a search and would like to import the information about the displayed papers into their local reference database, for the purposes of cataloging things they've read, adding notes, and using the information to generate later citations, potentially in other forms, such as BibTeX or Docbook, for inclusion in a publication of their own.
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=== Subscribing to reading lists, periodicals, etc ===
=== Subscribing to reading lists, periodicals, etc ===
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I would like to be able to leverage my news aggregator with hAtom to subscribe to a remote source for citation information, for example:
I would like to be able to leverage my news aggregator with hAtom to subscribe to a remote source for citation information, for example:
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=== Aggregating reading lists and reviews ===
=== Aggregating reading lists and reviews ===
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A citation microformat-specific aggregator could provide a decentralized version of [http://citeulike.org/ CiteULike]. Libraries, authors, research groups, and publishers could mark up their collections, while other people on weblogs or review sites could add tags and reviews.
A citation microformat-specific aggregator could provide a decentralized version of [http://citeulike.org/ CiteULike]. Libraries, authors, research groups, and publishers could mark up their collections, while other people on weblogs or review sites could add tags and reviews.
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===Finding in Library===
===Finding in Library===
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Find a copy of the cited work in a nearby library (as with [http://ocoins.info/ OpenCOinS]). [[User:AndyMabbett|AndyMabbett]] 04:55, 4 Nov 2006 (PST)
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Find a copy of the cited work in a nearby library (as with [http://ocoins.info/ OpenCOinS]).
===Buy a copy===
===Buy a copy===
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Find the cited work on, for example, Amazon or [http://www.abebooks.com/ ABE]; or subscribe to a journal via its own website. [[User:AndyMabbett|AndyMabbett]] 04:55, 4 Nov 2006 (PST)
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Find the cited work on, for example, Amazon or [http://www.abebooks.com/ ABE]; or subscribe to a journal via its own website.
===Find reviews===
===Find reviews===
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Find third-party reviews of the cited work. [[User:AndyMabbett|AndyMabbett]] 04:55, 4 Nov 2006 (PST)
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Find third-party reviews of the cited work.
===Give citation data for the page being visited===
===Give citation data for the page being visited===
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Adding a class of, say, "self" to an attribute of the proposed strawman would allow users (or user agents) to extract the data required to cite the page being visited, when referring to it elsewhere. There would be the added advantage of allowing the citation to be ignored by any parser which might be building a "tree" of citations, and preventing the setting up of an infinite loop.  
Adding a class of, say, "self" to an attribute of the proposed strawman would allow users (or user agents) to extract the data required to cite the page being visited, when referring to it elsewhere. There would be the added advantage of allowing the citation to be ignored by any parser which might be building a "tree" of citations, and preventing the setting up of an infinite loop.  
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See also [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia_talk:Citing_Wikipedia#Citation_data_should_be_on_the_page_concerned Proposal to include on-page citation data in Wikipedia]
See also [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia_talk:Citing_Wikipedia#Citation_data_should_be_on_the_page_concerned Proposal to include on-page citation data in Wikipedia]
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:[[User:AndyMabbett|Andy Mabbett]] 13:47, 20 Mar 2007 (PDT)
 
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==Examples==
==Examples==
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*[http://www.zotero.org/ Zotero], a Firefox extension to help collect, manage, and cite research sources.  
*[http://www.zotero.org/ Zotero], a Firefox extension to help collect, manage, and cite research sources.  
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:[[User:AndyMabbett|Andy Mabbett]] 09:13, 21 Mar 2007 (PDT)
 
== Original hBib Discussion ==
== Original hBib Discussion ==
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During the WWW2005 Developer's Day [[microformats]] track, Rohit Khare gave a [[presentations|presentation]] where he discussed the microformats [[process]], and then did  a quick demonstration wherein a bunch of us got on a shared Subethaedit document, and brainstormed some thoughts on what an "hBib" bibliography citation microformat would look like.  Rohit placed the [http://cnlabs.commerce.net/~rohit/hBib%20Discussion.html document on his Commercenet site].
During the WWW2005 Developer's Day [[microformats]] track, Rohit Khare gave a [[presentations|presentation]] where he discussed the microformats [[process]], and then did  a quick demonstration wherein a bunch of us got on a shared Subethaedit document, and brainstormed some thoughts on what an "hBib" bibliography citation microformat would look like.  Rohit placed the [http://cnlabs.commerce.net/~rohit/hBib%20Discussion.html document on his Commercenet site].
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== Citation vs. [[media-info]] ==
== Citation vs. [[media-info]] ==
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What distinguishes a cite from say [[media-info]] (e.g. [[media-info-examples]]) is that a cite is a reference to something explicitly external to the current piece of content or document, whereas [[media-info]] describes information about content embedded or inline in the current document.
What distinguishes a cite from say [[media-info]] (e.g. [[media-info-examples]]) is that a cite is a reference to something explicitly external to the current piece of content or document, whereas [[media-info]] describes information about content embedded or inline in the current document.
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== More on This and That ==
== More on This and That ==
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Citation microformats are being explored as a possibility for citing genealogical information at [http://eatslikeahuman.blogspot.com Dan Lawyer's blog].
Citation microformats are being explored as a possibility for citing genealogical information at [http://eatslikeahuman.blogspot.com Dan Lawyer's blog].
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== MARC / MODS / Dublin Core ==
== MARC / MODS / Dublin Core ==
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The MODS ([http://www.loc.gov/standards/marcxml/Sandburg/sandburgmods.xml example]) and Dublin Core ([http://www.loc.gov/standards/marcxml/Sandburg/sandburgdc.xml example]) transformations of MARC21 may contain some useful ideas.
The MODS ([http://www.loc.gov/standards/marcxml/Sandburg/sandburgmods.xml example]) and Dublin Core ([http://www.loc.gov/standards/marcxml/Sandburg/sandburgdc.xml example]) transformations of MARC21 may contain some useful ideas.
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== Concerns not addressed by existing formats ==
== Concerns not addressed by existing formats ==
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There are some aspects '''NOT adequately''' covered by existing formats. I have addressed this issue on the OpenOffice.org wiki page, too. [see http://wiki.services.openoffice.org/wiki/Bibliographic_Database for an extending discussion, the paragraph on ''Reference Types'']
There are some aspects '''NOT adequately''' covered by existing formats. I have addressed this issue on the OpenOffice.org wiki page, too. [see http://wiki.services.openoffice.org/wiki/Bibliographic_Database for an extending discussion, the paragraph on ''Reference Types'']
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These issues pertain mainly to '''Errata''', '''Comments and Authors Reply''' and '''Article Retractions'''.
These issues pertain mainly to '''Errata''', '''Comments and Authors Reply''' and '''Article Retractions'''.
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== Outstanding Issues ==
== Outstanding Issues ==
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Moved to [[citation-issues]] by [[User:BenWest|BenWest]] 17:29, 8 Apr 2007 (PDT).
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See [[citation-issues]].
== Examples in the wild ==
== Examples in the wild ==

Revision as of 18:56, 2 April 2009

rollaro

Citation Brainstorming

Part of the overall effort to develop a citation microformat.

Contents


Use Cases

To focus the discussion, please add use cases below that will help show what problems the citation microformat will be solving.

Use cases for both publishing and consuming citation information can help to focus citation brainstorming on efforts that provide real world utility to users.

For now, please add any uses cases you think of, however common or obscure (feel free to note opinions as to expected/known frequency of use of such use cases).

Acquiring reference information from the web

A user either finds an author's papers page, or is viewing the results of a search and would like to import the information about the displayed papers into their local reference database, for the purposes of cataloging things they've read, adding notes, and using the information to generate later citations, potentially in other forms, such as BibTeX or Docbook, for inclusion in a publication of their own.

Notes: In this case, it isn't important to the user what format the citation takes as displayed on the page where they find it. What *is* important is that it contains enough information to allow generation of the format they will ultimately re-publish it in. This implies that it may be worthwhile to err a little on the side of verbosity.

Also, links to downloadable full representations of the cited work are very important - e.g. a link to the PDF of a journal article, or to a music file.

Subscribing to reading lists, periodicals, etc

I would like to be able to leverage my news aggregator with hAtom to subscribe to a remote source for citation information, for example:

Aggregating reading lists and reviews

A citation microformat-specific aggregator could provide a decentralized version of CiteULike. Libraries, authors, research groups, and publishers could mark up their collections, while other people on weblogs or review sites could add tags and reviews.

At least, having a well-adopted microformat would make writing tools like CiteULike much better, since it relies in some cases on screen-scraping publisher web-sites.

Cut & Paste from web pages

Capturing/copying HTML from web pages for use in other applications (especially when those apps present HTML as output), such as pasting into Word, or a specialized application like Google Notebook, Onfolio or Kaboodle. When such captures are made, it makes sense to keep track of the full citation data, including the date it was accessed, which may or may not be the date it was published.

Blogs quoting other resources, including blogs

Any blog that cites online content, whether a blog or news article, could use an hCitation to properly link to the cited reference. Such citations could include the access date when the blogger made the citation, because resources on the other side of those links can change without notice.

Instead, today we have simple formating with a link to the permaURL. The citation data is completely lacking. See Doc Searl's blog for a style of referencing that could benefit from proper a citation uF.


Fascinating... after I added the last two use cases, I realized they focus on potentially marginal cases. The first because it is missing the "output" part of the cut & paste, where the uF would actually be used as part of the paste. The latter because bloggers have a working citation mechanism that is just a link to the URL (hopefully a permaURL). One could argue they wouldn't want a full hCitation. And in fact, until a tool exists that makes it easy, they probably won't. However, a tool that cuts & pastes from anywhere on the web into a blog with a full citation seems like a nice tool. But again, I'm not really paving the cowpaths with these ideas. -Joe Andrieu

Finding in Library

Find a copy of the cited work in a nearby library (as with OpenCOinS).

Buy a copy

Find the cited work on, for example, Amazon or ABE; or subscribe to a journal via its own website.

Find reviews

Find third-party reviews of the cited work.

Give citation data for the page being visited

Adding a class of, say, "self" to an attribute of the proposed strawman would allow users (or user agents) to extract the data required to cite the page being visited, when referring to it elsewhere. There would be the added advantage of allowing the citation to be ignored by any parser which might be building a "tree" of citations, and preventing the setting up of an infinite loop.

For evidence of published "self citation" data (albeit on a secondary page) see the "cite this article" link on any Wikipedia entry, e.g. [1] from [2].

See also Proposal to include on-page citation data in Wikipedia

Examples

if you want to cite a [biomedical journal] journal article on Wikipedia [...] you can export a correctly-formatted citation for Wikipedia from HubMed using unAPI... http://hublog.hubmed.org/archives/001408.html

Original hBib Discussion

During the WWW2005 Developer's Day microformats track, Rohit Khare gave a presentation where he discussed the microformats process, and then did a quick demonstration wherein a bunch of us got on a shared Subethaedit document, and brainstormed some thoughts on what an "hBib" bibliography citation microformat would look like. Rohit placed the document on his Commercenet site.

An attempt to summarize and inline the linked document follows. -Mike

Two major goals were outlined by the group:

The fundamental problem was discussed in terms of display - the ability to transform XHTML+hBib into the many journal-specific formats. For example, how to display "et.al" when all authors are present in the source, and how to re-order the elements if a style defines a set order of elements that conflicts with the ordering in the source. Using hCard for authors was agreed on, and the beginnings of an example were shown.

XHTML Structure

With my exprience working X2V and hCa* has taught me what elememts are easy to find and which are not. Since the Citation microformat is very new it is possible to not make a lot of the same errors twice and to make things easier for extracting application to find and imply certain properties.

Note: This section was the original content of the document. Since then, class='hcite' has been agreed on as the root class name. See explanation.

Citation vs. media-info

What distinguishes a cite from say media-info (e.g. media-info-examples) is that a cite is a reference to something explicitly external to the current piece of content or document, whereas media-info describes information about content embedded or inline in the current document.

Semantic Meaning

One of the guiding priniciple of Microformats is to use the most semantically rich element to describe each node (Point 2 of Semantic XHTML Design Principles: Use the most accurately precise semantic XHTML building block for each object etc). Since we are dealing with HTML and citations, several elements are candidates to be used to enrich the semantic meaning. CITE, BLOCKQUOTE, Q, A, (are there more?)

The Citation Brainstorming Page has a few development and ideas about how to give another person credit for a link. Some of the semantic ideas behind their choices of tags can be applied to a full bibliographic type reference. Does this sentence make sense only historically? -Mike

OCLC's WorldCat for titles

Question: what about using something like OCLC's WorldCat for linking titles? - Tim White

This and That

After reading through alot of different citation encoding formats, i noticed that each format was being used in onw of two ways. It was either to describe the Current page (THIS.PAGE) or being used to encode references that point to external resources (THAT.PAGE)

The informatation being encoded was identical for both resources (author, date, name, etc) they just reference different things. For this microformat, i'm not sure if we want to try to solve both problems, or just one? The meta tags in the head element would be the ideal place for information about the THIS.PAGE, but that is not in following with the ideals of microformats where information is human-readable. The THAT.PAGE idea where a list of references is at the end of a document in the form of a bibliography is more inline with the ideals of a microformat where the data is human-readable. That doesn't mean that data about the current document shouldn't be human-readable, so some of the same properties used to reference extermal resources can be used for the current document (THIS.PAGE). To do this a different root item could be used and transforming applications could either extract the citation data about the current page, or information about this page's references.

This is open for discussion, but either way, i believe that the properties used to describe a page will be the same for both THIS and THAT. brian suda

More on This and That

Citation microformats are being explored as a possibility for citing genealogical information at Dan Lawyer's blog.

This is a case where frequently the citation would refer to (THIS.PAGE), but would have nested within it a reference to (THAT.PAGE), possibly a few levels deep. For instance, a web page might contain data extracted from a microfilm of a census. The citation would need to include information about the web page, information about the microfilm, and information about the census. Genealogical citations are expected to include the repository (where can this book or microfilm be found. Is this the same as venue?). So, at each level the information should contain the repository of the referenced item. A nesting (recursive) mechanism for citation microformats would be useful in this case. Is this the function of the "container" element in the Straw Format?

Date Formatting

Since microformats are all about re-use and the accepted way to encode Date-Time has been pretty much settled, then this is a good place to start when dealing with all the different date citation types.

These are all the different fields from various citation formats that are of temporal nature:

* Date (available | created | dateAccepted | dateCopyrighted | dateSubmitted | issued | modified | valid)
* originInfo/dateIssued
* originInfo/dateCreated
* originInfo/dateCaptured
* originInfo/dateOther
* month
* year
* Copyright Year
* Date - Generic
* Date of Confernce
* Date of Publication
* Date of update/revisou/issuance of database record
* Former Date
* Entry Date for Database Record
* Database Update
* Year of Publication

There are several common properties across several citation domains and will certainly be in the citation microformat, the unique instances will need further consideration, otherwise there could be no end to posiblities.

There are also several properties (year, month, Year of publication) that can be extracted from another source. Therefore, if you only encode a more specific property such as; Date of Publication, you can extract the 'year of publication' from that. Since the date-time format we are modeling after is the ISO date-time format, just the Year portion is an acceptable date. So if you ONLY know the year of publication, the you can form a valid 'Date of Publication' as a microformat (which inturn is a valid 'year of publication') - you milage may vary when it comes to importing into citation applications.

...

It seems to me that these can be collapsed to maybe one or two different date properties. As far as the specific human readable formatting of the date, that can be chosen per whatever the presentation style guide says, and the datetime-design-pattern used to simplify the markup. - Tantek


Important Sometimes we need a date range and not simply a date (e.g. 4-6 May 2006). See Conference Citation examples later on this page. - Discoleo

Seasons Some journals have seasonal issues (e.g. "Summer 2006 edition") instead of, or as well as, editions labelled by month or other calendar-date. AndyMabbett 05:05, 4 Nov 2006 (PST)

Tags

Some of the citation formats has a place for 'keywords' or 'generic tags', etc. This might be a good place to re-use the RelTag microformat. The downside would be that they are then forced to be links, which might be the correct way to mark-up these terms.


MARC / MODS / Dublin Core

The MODS (example) and Dublin Core (example) transformations of MARC21 may contain some useful ideas.

Here's a first attempt at rewriting the linked examples in XHTML (written in response to a mailing list query about encoding book information with microformats):

<div class="book" lang="en">
  <h3 class="fn">Arithmetic /</h3>
  <p>By <span class="creator"><span class="fn">Sandburg, Carl</span>,
     <span class="date">1878-1967</span></span>,
     and <span class="illustrator">Rand, Ted</span></p>
  <p>Publisher: <span class="publisher"><span class="fn">Harcourt Brace Jovanovich</span>,
     <span class="locality">San Diego</span></span></p>
  <p>Published: <span class="issued">1993</span></p>
  <p class="description">A poem about numbers and their characteristics. Features
     anamorphic, or distorted, drawings which can be restored to normal by viewing
     from a particular angle or by viewing the image's reflection in the provided
     Mylar cone.</p>
  <p class="note">One Mylar sheet included in pocket.</p>
  <p>Subjects:</p>
  <ul>
    <li class="subject">Arithmetic</li>
    <li class="subject">Children's poetry, American.</li>
    <li class="subject">Arithmetic</li>
    <li class="subject">American poetry</li>
    <li class="subject">Visual perception</li>
  </ul>
</div>

Basic Citation Stuctures

There are basic structures to any citation, this is an overview of some of the types http://www.users.muohio.edu/darcusb/misc/citations-spec.html


Concerns not addressed by existing formats

There are some aspects NOT adequately covered by existing formats. I have addressed this issue on the OpenOffice.org wiki page, too. [see http://wiki.services.openoffice.org/wiki/Bibliographic_Database for an extending discussion, the paragraph on Reference Types]

These issues pertain mainly to Errata, Comments and Authors Reply and Article Retractions.

Outstanding Issues

See citation-issues.

Examples in the wild

Pages which start to use the discussion above to create working examples in using hcite: (This section could be used as a base for a page like "hcite-examples-in-wild" later).

Please add new examples to the top of this section.

discussions

See also

citation-brainstorming was last modified: Wednesday, December 31st, 1969

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