hCard 1.0

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<h1>hCard</h1>
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<entry-title>hCard 1.0</entry-title>
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{{latest|h-card}}
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<span class="vcard"><span class="fn">[[User:Tantek|Tantek Çelik]]</span> (<span class="role">Editor</span>, <span class="role">Author</span>)</span>, <span class="vcard"><span class="fn">[[User:Brian|Brian Suda]]</span> (<span class="role">Author</span>)</span>
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----
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<dfn style="font-style:normal;font-weight:bold">hCard</dfn> is a simple, open format for publishing people, companies, organizations on the web, using a 1:1 representation of vCard ([[rfc-2426|RFC2426]]) properties and values in HTML. hCard is one of several open [[microformats|microformat]] standards suitable for embedding data in HTML/HTML5, and Atom/RSS/XHTML or other XML.
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hCard is a simple, open, distributed format for representing people, companies, organizations, and places, using a 1:1 representation of the properties and values of the vCard standard ([http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc2426.txt RFC2426]) in [[semantic-xhtml|semantic XHTML]]. hCard is one of several open [[microformats|microformat]] standards suitable for embedding in (X)HTML, Atom, RSS, and arbitrary XML.
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Translations: [[hcard-fr|<span lang="fr">Français</span>]] • [[hcard-ja|<span lang="ja">日本語</span>]] • [[hcard-ru|<span lang="ru">Русский</span>]] • [[hcard-th|<span lang="th">ภาษาไทย</span>]] • [[hcard-zh|<span lang="zh">漢語</span>]] • <span style="font-size:.8em">([[how-to-start-new-translation|Add your language]])</span><br/>
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[[hcard#Copyright|Copyright]] and [[hcard#Patents|patents]] statements apply. See [[hcard#Inspiration_and_Acknowledgments|acknowledgments]].
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Want to get started with writing an [[hcard|hCard]]?  Use the [http://microformats.org/code/hcard/creator hCard creator] to write up some contact information and publish it, or follow the [[hcard-authoring|hCard authoring tips]] to add hCard markup to your current contact page.
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== Example ==
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hCards are most often used to represent people:
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<source lang=html4strict>
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<div class="vcard">
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<a class="url fn" href="http://tantek.com/">Tantek Çelik</a>
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</div>
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</source>
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and organizations:
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<source lang=html4strict>
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<div class="vcard">
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<a class="url fn org" href="http://microformats.org/">microformats.org</a>
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</div>
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</source>
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<div style="float:right;background:rgb(248, 247, 236); border:2px solid rgb(225, 229, 186); margin-left:2em" class="box">
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=== Get started ===
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http://microformats.org/wiki/skins/Microformats/images/bullet.gif Create a [http://microformats.org/code/hcard/creator new hCard]<br/>
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http://microformats.org/wiki/skins/Microformats/images/bullet.gif Learn [[hcard-authoring|hCard authoring]]
 +
</div>
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__TOC__
 
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== Specification ==
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The class '''<code>vcard</code>''' is a ''[[hcard#Root_Class_Name|root class name]]'' that indicates the presence of an hCard.
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=== Editor ===
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The classes '''<code>url</code>''', '''<code>fn</code>''', and '''<code>org</code>''' define  ''properties'' of the hCard.
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[http://tantek.com/ Tantek Çelik], [http://technorati.com Technorati, Inc.]
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=== Authors ===
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== Properties ==
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* [http://tantek.com/ Tantek Çelik], [http://technorati.com Technorati, Inc]
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<div style="white-space:nowrap;float:left">Common hCard properties (inside class <code>'''vcard'''</code>)
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* [http://suda.co.uk/ Brian Suda]
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* <code>'''fn'''</code> - name, formatted/full. required
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* <code>'''n'''</code> - structured name, container for:
 +
** <code>'''honorific-prefix'''</code> - e.g. Ms., Mr., Dr.
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** <code>'''given-name'''</code> - given (often first) name
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** <code>'''additional-name'''</code> - other/middle name
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** <code>'''family-name'''</code> - family (often last) name
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** <code>'''honorific-suffix'''</code> - e.g. Ph.D., Esq.
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* <code>'''nickname'''</code> - nickname/alias, e.g. [[IRC]] <abbr title="nickname">nick</abbr>
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* <code>'''org'''</code> - company/organization
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* <code>'''photo'''</code> - photo, icon, avatar
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* <code>'''url'''</code> - home page for this contact
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* <code>'''email'''</code> - email address
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* <code>'''tel'''</code> - [[phone number|telephone number]]
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* <code>'''[[adr]]'''</code> - structured address, container for:
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** <code>'''street-address'''</code> - street <abbr title="number">#</abbr>+name, <abbr title="apartment">apt</abbr>/<abbr title="suite">ste</abbr>
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** <code>'''locality'''</code> - city or village
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** <code>'''region'''</code> - state or province
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** <code>'''postal-code'''</code> - postal code, e.g. <abbr title="United States">U.S.</abbr> ZIP
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** <code>'''country-name'''</code> - country name
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* <code>'''bday'''</code> - birthday. [[date-pattern|ISO date]].
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* <code>'''category'''</code> - for tagging contacts
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* <code>'''note'''</code> - notes about the contact
 +
</div>
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<div style="margin-top:-.4em; float:left;"><span style="display:none">Example hCard of common properties:</span>
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<ul style="list-style:none"><li><code>&lt;div class="'''vcard'''"&gt;</code>
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<ul style="list-style:none; margin-top:-.02em">
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<li><code>&lt;span class="'''fn'''"&gt;Sally Ride&lt;/span&gt;</code></li>
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<li><code>(&lt;span class="'''n'''"&gt;</code><ul style="list-style:none">
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<li><code>&lt;span class="'''honorific-prefix'''"&gt;Dr.&lt;/span&gt;</code></li>
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<li><code>&lt;span class="'''given-name'''"&gt;Sally&lt;/span&gt;</code></li>
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<li><code>&lt;abbr class="'''additional-name'''"&gt;K.&lt;/abbr&gt;</code></li>
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<li><code>&lt;span class="'''family-name'''"&gt;Ride&lt;/span&gt;</code></li>
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<li><code>&lt;span class="'''honorific-suffix'''"&gt;Ph.D.&lt;/span&gt;&lt;/span&gt;),</code></li></ul></li>
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<li><code>&lt;span class="'''nickname'''"&gt;sallykride&lt;/span&gt; (IRC)</code></li>
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<li><code>&lt;div class="'''org'''"&gt;Sally Ride Science&lt;/div&gt;</code></li>
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<li><code>&lt;img class="'''photo'''" src="<nowiki>http://example.com/sk.jpg</nowiki>"/&gt; </code></li>
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<li><code>&lt;a class="'''url'''" href="<nowiki>http://sally.example.com</nowiki>"&gt;w&lt;/a&gt;,</code></li>
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<li><code>&lt;a class="'''email'''" href="<nowiki>mailto:sally@example.com</nowiki>"&gt;e&lt;/a&gt; </code></li>
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<li><code>&lt;div class="'''tel'''"&gt;+1.818.555.1212&lt;/div&gt;</code></li>
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<li><code>&lt;div class="'''adr'''"&gt;</code><ul style="list-style:none">
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<li><code>&lt;div class="'''street-address'''"&gt;123 Main st.&lt;/div&gt;</code></li>
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<li><code>&lt;span class="'''locality'''"&gt;Los Angeles&lt;/span&gt;, </code></li>
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<li><code>&lt;abbr class="'''region'''" title="California"&gt;CA&lt;/abbr&gt;, </code></li>
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<li><code>&lt;span class="'''postal-code'''"&gt;91316&lt;/span&gt;</code></li>
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<li><code>&lt;div class="'''country-name'''"&gt;U.S.A&lt;/div&gt;&lt;/div&gt;</code></li></ul></li>
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<li><code>&lt;time class="'''bday'''"&gt;1951-05-26&lt;/time&gt; birthday</code></li>
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<li><code>&lt;div class="'''category'''"&gt;physicist&lt;/div&gt;</code></li>
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<li><code>&lt;div class="'''note'''"&gt;1st American woman in space.&lt;/div&gt;</code></li></ul></li>
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<li><code>&lt;/div&gt;</code></li></ul>
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</div>
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<div style="clear:both; padding:1em 0 0.5em 0">See the [[hcard#Property_List|full list of properties]] for the complete list.
 +
</div>
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__TOC__
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=== Copyright ===
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== Status ==
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{{MicroFormatCopyrightStatement2004}}
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hCard 1.0 is a microformats.org specification. Public discussion on hCard takes place on [[hcard-feedback]], the #microformats [[irc]] channel on irc.freenode.net, and [http://microformats.org/discuss/mail/microformats-discuss/ microformats-discuss mailing list].
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=== Patents ===
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=== Errata and Updates ===
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{{MicroFormatPatentStatement}}
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Known errors and issues in this specification are corrected in [[hcard-issues-resolved|resolved]] and [[hcard-issues-closed|closed]] issues. Please check there before reporting [[hcard-issues|issues]].
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=== Inspiration and Acknowledgments ===
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The hCard 1.0.1 update is currently under development and incorporates known errata corrections as well as the [[value-class-pattern]].
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Thanks to: my good friend [http://vadim.com/ Vadim] who introduced me to vCard ''many'' years ago, and if I'd only paid more attention then, perhaps I could have helped a lot of people avoid wasting a lot of time reinventing various standards wheels.
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== Introduction ==
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== Background ==
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The vCard standard ([http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc2426.txt RFC2426]), has been broadly interoperably implemented (e.g. Apple's "Address Book" application built into MacOSX).
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The vCard standard ([[rfc-2426|RFC2426]]), has been broadly interoperably implemented (e.g. Apple's "Address Book" application built into MacOSX).
In addition, many bloggers identify themselves by name and discuss their friends and family.  With just a tad bit of structure, bloggers can discuss people in their blog(s) in such a way that spiders and other aggregators can retrieve this information, automatically convert them to vCards, and use them in any vCard application or service.
In addition, many bloggers identify themselves by name and discuss their friends and family.  With just a tad bit of structure, bloggers can discuss people in their blog(s) in such a way that spiders and other aggregators can retrieve this information, automatically convert them to vCards, and use them in any vCard application or service.
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This specification introduces the '''hCard''' format, which uses a 1:1 representation of the properties and values of the aforementioned vCard standard, in semantic XHTML.  Bloggers can both embed hCards directly in their web pages, and style them with CSS to make them appear as desired.  In addition, hCard enables applications to retrieve information directly from web pages without having to reference a separate file.
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This specification introduces the '''hCard''' format, which uses a 1:1 representation of the properties and values of the aforementioned vCard standard, in semantic HTML.  Bloggers can both embed hCards directly in their web pages, and style them with CSS to make them appear as desired.  In addition, hCard enables applications to retrieve information directly from web pages without having to reference a separate file.
Use the [http://microformats.org/code/hcard/creator hCard creator] and copy the HTML code it generates to your blog or website to publish your contact info.
Use the [http://microformats.org/code/hcard/creator hCard creator] and copy the HTML code it generates to your blog or website to publish your contact info.
-
== Semantic XHTML Design Principles ==
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== Conformance ==
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{{semantic-xhtml-design-principles}}
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{{rfc-2119-intro}}
== Format ==
== Format ==
=== In General ===
=== In General ===
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The vCard standard ([http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc2426.txt RFC2426]) forms the basis of hCard.
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The vCard standard ([[rfc-2426|RFC2426]]) forms the basis of hCard.
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The basic format of hCard is to use vCard object/property names in lower-case for class names, and to map the nesting of vCard objects directly into nested XHTML elements.
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The basic format of hCard is to use vCard object/property names in lower-case for class names, and to map the nesting of vCard objects directly into nested HTML elements.
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=== More Semantic Equivalents ===
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=== Root Class Name ===
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For some properties there are HTML elements which better match and convey their semantics.  The following properties SHOULD be encoded with the following (X)HTML:
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The root class name for an hCard is "vcard". An element with a class name of "vcard" is itself called an ''hCard''.
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* <code>URL</code> in vCard becomes  <code><a class="url" href="...">...</a></code> inside the element with <code>class="vcard"</code> in hCard.
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* Similarly, <code>EMAIL</code> in vCard becomes <code><nowiki><a class="email" href="mailto:...">...</a></nowiki></code>
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* <code>PHOTO</code> in vCard becomes <code><img class="photo" src="..." alt="Photo of ..." /></code> or <code><object class="photo" data="..." type="...">Photo of ...</object></code>
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-
* <code>UID</code> in vCard simply becomes another semantic applied to a specific URL (or EMAIL) for an hCard.
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-
=== Singular vs. Plural Properties ===
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=== Properties and Sub-properties ===
 +
The properties of an hCard are represented by elements inside the hCard.  Elements with class names of the listed properties represent the values of those properties.  Some properties have sub-properties, and those are represented by elements inside the elements for properties.
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For properties which are singular (e.g. "N" and "FN"), the first descendant element with that class should take effect, any others being ignored.
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=== Property List ===
 +
hCard properties (sub-properties in parentheses like this)
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For properties which can be plural (e.g. "TEL"), each class instance should create a instance of that property.
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'''Required:'''
 +
* '''fn'''
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* <span id="property-list-n">'''n'''<sup style="font-size:smaller">[[#note1|1]]</sup></span>
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** family-name
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** given-name
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** additional-name
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** honorific-prefix
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** honorific-suffix
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Optional:
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* [[adr]]
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** post-office-box
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** extended-address
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** street-address
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** locality
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** region
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** postal-code
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** country-name
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** type
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** value
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* agent
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* bday
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* category
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* class
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* email (type, value)
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* geo
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** latitude
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** longitude
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* key
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* label
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* logo
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* mailer
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* nickname
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* note
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* org (organization-name, organization-unit)
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* photo
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* rev
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* role
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* sort-string
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* sound
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* <span id="property-list-tel">tel<sup style="font-size:smaller">[[#note2|2]]</sup> (type, value)</span>
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* title
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* <span id="property-list-tz">tz<sup style="font-size:smaller">[[#note3|3]]</sup></span>
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* uid
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* url
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==== Singular properties ====
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=== Property Notes ===
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<span id="note1">[[#property-list-n|1. ^]]</span>: The 'n' property is {{optional}} if any [[hcard#Implied_.22n.22_Optimization|implied 'n' optimization rules]] are in effect.<br />
 +
<span id="note2">[[#property-list-tel|2. ^]]</span>: tel - Authors {{may}} follow the [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/E.123 E.123] standard for writing values of telephone numbers. Letter values (e.g. +1-555-FORMATS) {{must}} be converted to numbers. Use an <code>abbr</code> to display letters and provide a numerical value simultaneously, e.g. <code><nowiki><abbr title="+15553676287">+1-555-FORMATS</abbr></nowiki></code>.<br />
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<span id="note3">[[#property-list-tz|3. ^]]</span>: tz - timezones are indicated with the timezone offset, e.g. <code>PST (&lt;span class="tz">-08:00&lt;/span>)</code>.
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Singular properties: "FN", "N", "BDAY", "TZ", "GEO", "SORT-STRING", "UID", "CLASS".   
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=== Singular vs. Plural Properties ===
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Singular properties: 'fn', 'n', 'bday', 'tz', 'geo', 'sort-string', 'uid', 'class', 'rev'For properties which are singular, the first descendant element with that class {{should}} take effect, any others being ignored.
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All other properties are plural. This list has been derived by analyzing the semantics of the individual properties in vCard RFC2426 and determining logically that they MUST be singular per their semantics.  See [[hcard-singular-properties]] for explanations.
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All other properties {{may}} be plural. Each class instance of such properties creates a new instance of that property.
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==== Plural Properties Singularized ====
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Since plural property names become their singular equivalents, even if the original plural property permitted only a single value with multiple components, those multiple components are represented each with their own singularly named property and the the property is effectively multivalued and subject to the above treatment of multivalued properties.
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=== Human vs. Machine readable ===
=== Human vs. Machine readable ===
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The human visible text contents of an element for a property represents the value of that property, with a few exceptions:
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If an <code>&lt;abbr&gt;</code> element is used for a property, then the '<code>title</code>' attribute of the <code>&lt;abbr></code> element is the value of the property, instead of the contents of the element, which instead provide a human presentable version of the value.
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If an <code>&lt;abbr&gt;</code> element is used for a property, then the '<code>title</code>' attribute (if present) of the <code>&lt;abbr></code> element is the value of the property, instead of the contents of the element, which instead provide a more human presentable version of the value.
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If an <code>&lt;a&gt;</code> element is used for one or more properties, it must be treated as follows:
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If an <code>&lt;a&gt;</code> element is used for one or more properties, it {{must}} be treated as follows:
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# For the "PHOTO" property and any other property that takes a URL as its value, the <code>href="..."</code> attribute provides the property value.
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# For the 'photo' property and any other property that takes a URL as its value, the <code>href="..."</code> attribute provides the property value.
# For other properties, the element's content is the value of the property.
# For other properties, the element's content is the value of the property.
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If an <code>&lt;img&gt;</code> element is used for one or more properties, it must be treated as follows:
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If an <code>&lt;img&gt;</code> element is used for one or more properties, it {{must}} be treated as follows:
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# For the "PHOTO" property and any other property that takes a URL as its value, the <code>src="..."</code> attribute provides the property value.
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# For the 'photo' property and any other property that takes a URL as its value, the <code>src="..."</code> attribute provides the property value.
# For other properties, the <code>&lt;img></code> element's '<code>alt</code>' attribute is the value of the property.
# For other properties, the <code>&lt;img></code> element's '<code>alt</code>' attribute is the value of the property.
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If an <code>&lt;object&gt;</code> element is used for one or more properties, it must be treated as follows:
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If an <code>&lt;object&gt;</code> element is used for one or more properties, it {{must}} be treated as follows:
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# For the "PHOTO" property and any other property that takes a URL as its value, the <code>data="..."</code> attribute provides the property value.
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# For the 'photo' property and any other property that takes a URL as its value, the <code>data="..."</code> attribute provides the property value.
# For other properties, the element's content is the value of the property.
# For other properties, the element's content is the value of the property.
=== Value excerpting ===
=== Value excerpting ===
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Sometimes only part of an element which is the equivalent for a property is used for the value of the property.  This typically occurs when a property has a subtype, like 'tel'. For this purpose, the special class name "<code>value</code>" is used to excerpt out the subset of the element that is the value of the property. E.g. here is an hCard fragment for marking up a home phone number:<br />
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Sometimes only part of an element which is the equivalent for a property should be used for the value of the property.  This typically occurs when a property has a subtype, like TEL. For this purpose, the special class name "<code>value</code>" is introduced to excerpt out the subset of the element that is the value of the property. E.g. here is an hCard fragment for marking up a home phone number:<br />
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vCard:
vCard:
Line 92: Line 204:
hCard:
hCard:
-
<pre><nowiki>
+
<source lang=html4strict>
<span class="tel">
<span class="tel">
  <span class="type">home</span>:
  <span class="type">home</span>:
  <span class="value">+1.415.555.1212</span>
  <span class="value">+1.415.555.1212</span>
</span>
</span>
-
</nowiki></pre>
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</source>
This hCard fragment could be displayed as:
This hCard fragment could be displayed as:
Line 108: Line 220:
</div>
</div>
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=== Property Exceptions ===
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You may want to customize/localize the visible punctuation and not want to include it in what machines see. Use multiple class="value" elements which are then concatenated. E.g.
 +
<source lang=html4strict>
 +
<span class="tel">
 +
<span class="type">home</span>:
 +
<span class="value">+1</span>.<span class="value">415</span>.<span class="value">555</span>.<span class="value">1212</span></span>
 +
</span>
 +
</source>
 +
 +
No change in display, but the parsed hCard property value then becomes in vCard:
 +
 +
vCard:
 +
<pre><nowiki>
 +
TEL;TYPE=HOME:+14155551212
 +
</nowiki></pre>
 +
 +
<!-- note for Tantek: review/edit property casing from here on -->
 +
 +
=== Property Exceptions ===
vCard has several properties which either do not make sense on, or are already implied within the context of a web page.  This section explains what to (not) do with them.
vCard has several properties which either do not make sense on, or are already implied within the context of a web page.  This section explains what to (not) do with them.
-
# '''NAME''', '''PROFILE''', '''SOURCE''', '''PRODID''', '''VERSION''' properties as defined in Sections 2.1.2, 2.1.3, 2.1.4, 3.6.3, 3.6.9 of RFC 2426.  Content publishers MUST NOT use these properties in their hCards, and as such, hCard consumers/parsers MUST IGNORE these properties if they are found within an hCard. Instead. hCard to vCard converters SHOULD use the title of the page where the hCard is found (e.g. the <code><title></code> element in (X)HTML documents) to construct the NAME property, MAY output a PROFILE value of "<code>VCARD</code>" per RFC 2426, SHOULD use the URL of the page where the hCard is found to construct the SOURCE property (e.g. perhaps as a parameter to a URL/service that converts hCards to vCards), for an output vCard stream (e.g. a .vcf file). Only services/applications that output actual vCards should write the PRODID property, with the product identifier for said service/application.   Similarly only such services/applications should write the VERSION property, with the value "3.0" (without quotes) per RFC2426 Section 3.6.9.
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# vCard's '''NAME''', '''PROFILE''', '''SOURCE''', '''PRODID''', '''VERSION''' properties are defined in Sections 2.1.2, 2.1.3, 2.1.4, 3.6.3, 3.6.9 of [[rfc-2426|RFC2426]].  Content publishers {{must-not}} use these properties in their hCards, and as such, hCard consumers/parsers {{must}} IGNORE these properties if they are found within an hCard. Instead. hCard to vCard converters {{should}} use the title of the page where the hCard is found (e.g. the <code><title></code> element in HTML documents) to construct the NAME property, {{may}} output a PROFILE value of "<code>VCARD</code>" per [[rfc-2426|RFC2426]], {{should}} use the URL of the page where the hCard is found to construct the SOURCE property (e.g. perhaps as a parameter to a URL/service that converts hCards to vCards), for an output vCard stream (e.g. a .vcf file). Only services/applications that output actual vCards should write the PRODID property, with the product identifier for said service/application. Similarly, only such services/applications should write the VERSION property, with the value "3.0" (without quotes) per [[rfc-2426|RFC2426]] Section 3.6.9.
=== Organization Contact Info ===
=== Organization Contact Info ===
-
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If the "FN" and "ORG" (organization) properties have the exact same value (typically because they are set on the same element, e.g. class="fn org"), then the hCard represents contact information for a company, organization or place and {{should}} be treated as such. In this case the author also {{must-not}} set the "N" property, or set it (and any sub-properties) explicitly to the empty string "". Thus parsers {{should}} handle the missing "N" property, in this case by implying empty values for all the "N" sub-properties.
-
If the "FN" and "ORG" properties have the exact same value (typically because they are set on the same element, e.g. class="fn org"), then the hCard represents contact information for a company or organization and should be treated as such. In this case the author MUST also NOT set the "N" property, or set it (and any sub-properties) explicitly to the empty string "". Thus parsers should handle the missing "N" property in this case by implying empty values for all the "N" sub-properties.
+
-
=== Implied "n" Optimization ===
+
=== Implied "N" Optimization ===
 +
Although vCard requires that the "N" property be present, the authors of the vCard specification ([[rfc-2426|RFC2426]]) themselves do not include "N" properties in their vCards near the end of the spec (p.38).  This apparent contradiction can be resolved by simply allowing the "FN" property to imply "N" property values in typical cases provided in the spec. We do so explicitly in hCard.
-
Although vCard requires that the "N" property be present, the authors of the vCard specification (RFC 2426) themselves do not include "N" properties in their vCards near the end of the spec (p.38).  This apparent contradiction can be resolved by simply allowing the "FN" property to imply "N" property values in typical cases provided in the spec.  We do so explicitly in hCard.
+
If "FN" and "ORG" are not the same (see previous section), and the value of the "FN" property is exactly two words (separated by whitespace), and there is no explicit "N" property, then the "N" property is inferred from the "FN" property.  For "FN"s with either one word see below, and for three or more, the author {{must}} explicitly markup the "N", except for the organization contact info case, [http://microformats.org/wiki/hcard#Organization_Contact_Info see above] for that.
-
 
+
-
If "FN" and "ORG" are not the same (see previous section), and the value of the "FN" property is exactly two words (separated by whitespace), and there is no explicit "N" property, then the "N" property is inferred from the "FN" property.  For "FN"s with either one word see below, and for three or more, the author MUST explicitly markup the "N", except for the organization contact info case, [http://microformats.org/wiki/hcard#Organization_Contact_Info see above] for that.
+
# The content of "FN" is broken into two "words" separated by whitespace.
# The content of "FN" is broken into two "words" separated by whitespace.
# The ''first'' word of the "FN" is interpreted as the "given-name" for the "N" property.
# The ''first'' word of the "FN" is interpreted as the "given-name" for the "N" property.
# The ''second/last'' word of the "FN" is interpreted as the "family-name" for the "N" property.
# The ''second/last'' word of the "FN" is interpreted as the "family-name" for the "N" property.
-
# Exception: If the first word ends in a "," comma OR if the second word is a single character (optionally followed by a period "."), then the first word (minus the comma at the end if any) is interpreted as the "family-name" and the second word is interpreted as the "given-name".
+
# Exception: If the first word ends in a "," comma, then the first word (minus the comma at the end) is interpreted as the "family-name" and the second word is interpreted as the "given-name".
This allows simplification in the typical case of people stating:
This allows simplification in the typical case of people stating:
* given-name (space) family-name
* given-name (space) family-name
* family-name (comma) given-name
* family-name (comma) given-name
-
* family-name (comma) given-name-first-initial
 
-
* family-name (space) given-name-first-initial (optional period)
 
=== Implied "nickname" Optimization ===
=== Implied "nickname" Optimization ===
-
 
+
Due to the prevalence of the use of nicknames/handles/usernames in actual content published on the Web (e.g. authors of [[hReview|reviews]]), hCard also has an implied "nickname" optimization to handle this.
-
Due to the prevalence of the use of nicknames/handles/usernames on the Web in actual content published on the Web (e.g. authors of [[hReview|reviews]]), hCard also has an implied "nickname" optimization to handle this.
+
Similar to the implied "n" optimization, if "FN" and "ORG" are not the same, and the value of the "FN" property is exactly one word, and there is no explicit "N" property, then:
Similar to the implied "n" optimization, if "FN" and "ORG" are not the same, and the value of the "FN" property is exactly one word, and there is no explicit "N" property, then:
-
# The content of the "FN" is treated as a "nickname" property value.
+
# The content of the "FN" {{must}} be treated as a "nickname" property value.
-
# Parsers should handle the missing "N" property by implying empty values for all the "N" sub-properties.
+
# Parsers {{should}} handle the missing "N" property by implying empty values for all the "N" sub-properties.
-
Note: the hCard may have additional explicit "nickname" property values in addition to the implied nickname.
+
Though parsers {{must}} follow the implied nickname optimization, publishers {{should}} explicitly indicate the "nickname" even in this case, e.g.:
 +
 
 +
<source lang=html4strict>
 +
<span class="vcard">
 +
<span class="fn nickname">daveman692</span>
 +
</span>
 +
</source>
 +
 
 +
The hCard {{may}} have additional explicit "nickname" property values in addition to the implied nickname.
=== Implied "organization-name" Optimization ===
=== Implied "organization-name" Optimization ===
-
 
+
The "ORG" property has two subproperties, organization-name and organization-unit. Very often authors only publish the organization-name.  Thus if an "ORG" property has no "organization-name" inside it, then its entire contents {{must}} be treated as the "organization-name".
-
The "ORG" property has two subproperties, organization-name and organization-unit. Very often authors only publish the organization-name.  Thus if an "ORG" property has no "organization-name" inside it, then its entire contents MUST be treated as the "organization-name".
+
=== Tags as Categories ===
=== Tags as Categories ===
 +
Categories in hCard {{may}} be represented by tags with [[rel-tag]]. When a category property is a rel-tag, the tag (as defined by rel-tag) is used for that category.
-
Categories in hCard can optionally be represented by tags with rel-tag. When a category property is a rel-tag, the tag (as defined by rel-tag) is used for that category.
+
=== type subproperty values ===
-
 
+
-
=== Root Class Name ===
+
-
 
+
-
The root class name for an hCard is "vcard".
+
-
 
+
-
=== Property List ===
+
-
 
+
-
This is the list of properties (and subproperties, in parentheses, like this) in hCard, taken from vCard:
+
-
 
+
-
* fn, n (family-name, given-name, additional-name, honorific-prefix, honorific-suffix), nickname, sort-string
+
-
* url, email (type, value), tel (type, value)
+
-
* adr (post-office-box, extended-address, street-address, locality, region, postal-code, country-name, type, value), label
+
-
* geo (latitude, longitude), tz
+
-
* photo, logo, sound, bday
+
-
* title, role, org (organization-name, organization-unit)
+
-
* category, note
+
-
* class, key, mailer, uid, rev
+
-
==== type subproperty values ====
+
-
 
+
The 'type' subproperty in particular takes different values depending on which property it is a subproperty of.  These 'type' subproperty values are case-INSENSITIVE, meaning "Home" is the same as "home", as well as multivalued, e.g. a tel can be home and preferred:
The 'type' subproperty in particular takes different values depending on which property it is a subproperty of.  These 'type' subproperty values are case-INSENSITIVE, meaning "Home" is the same as "home", as well as multivalued, e.g. a tel can be home and preferred:
Line 180: Line 293:
hCard:
hCard:
-
<pre><nowiki>
+
<source lang=html4strict>
<span class="tel"><span class="type">Home</span> (<span class="type">pref</span>erred):
<span class="tel"><span class="type">Home</span> (<span class="type">pref</span>erred):
  <span class="value">+1.415.555.1212</span>
  <span class="value">+1.415.555.1212</span>
</span>
</span>
-
</nowiki></pre>
+
</source>
This could be displayed as:
This could be displayed as:
Line 194: Line 307:
</div>
</div>
-
The following lists are ''informative''. See RFC 2426 sections 3.2.1 ADR, 3.3.1 TEL, and 3.3.2 EMAIL respectively for normative type values.  They are repeated here for convenience. Default type subproperty value(s) is(are) first in each list and indicated in ALL CAPS.  types may be multivalued.
+
==== type with unspecified value ====
 +
When the type of a property is specified, and there is no explicit value specified, then everything in the property except for the type is considered the value of the property. E.g.
 +
 
 +
<source lang=html4strict>
 +
<span class="tel"><span class="type">Home</span> +1.415.555.1212</span>
 +
</source>
 +
 
 +
is equivalent to:
 +
 
 +
<source lang=html4strict>
 +
<span class="tel"><span class="type">Home</span><span class="value"> +1.415.555.1212</span></span>
 +
</source>
 +
 
 +
And thus the type is "home" and the value is "+1.415.555.1212".
 +
 
 +
==== adr tel email types ====
 +
The following lists are ''informative''. See [[rfc-2426|RFC2426]] sections 3.2.1 ADR, 3.3.1 TEL, and 3.3.2 EMAIL respectively for normative type values.  They are repeated here for convenience. Default type subproperty value(s) is(are) first in each list and indicated in ALL CAPS.  types may be multivalued.
* adr type: INTL, POSTAL, PARCEL, WORK, dom, home, pref
* adr type: INTL, POSTAL, PARCEL, WORK, dom, home, pref
-
* tel type: VOICE, home, msg, work, pref, fax, cell, video, pager, bbs, modem, car, isdn, pcs
+
* tel type: VOICE, home, msg, work, pref, fax, cell, video, pager, bbs, modem, [http://flickr.com/photos/tags/carcellphone/ car], isdn, pcs
-
* email type: INTERNET, x400, pref, "other IANA registered address types"
+
* email type: INTERNET, x400, pref
-
=== XMDP Profile ===
+
=== Profile ===
 +
The hCard <span id="XMDP_Profile">XMDP profile</span> is at http://microformats.org/profile/hcard
-
See [[hcard-profile]] for the [http://gmpg.org/xmdp XMDP] profile of hCard which contains the above complete list of properties, with references to their RFC 2426 definitions.
+
Content that uses hCard {{should}} reference this profile, e.g.
 +
<source lang=html4strict>
 +
<link rel="profile" href="http://microformats.org/profile/hcard">
 +
</source>
 +
or
 +
<source lang=html4strict>
 +
This content uses <a rel="profile" href="http://microformats.org/profile/hcard">hCard</a>.
 +
</source>
 +
or
 +
<source lang=html4strict>
 +
<head profile="http://microformats.org/profile/hcard">
 +
</source>
 +
(profile attribute is deprecated in HTML5)
 +
Content may combine the above methods as well.
=== Parsing Details ===
=== Parsing Details ===
Line 222: Line 365:
FN:Tantek Çelik
FN:Tantek Çelik
URL:http://tantek.com/
URL:http://tantek.com/
-
ORG:Technorati
 
END:VCARD
END:VCARD
</nowiki></pre>
</nowiki></pre>
Line 228: Line 370:
and an equivalent in hCard with various elements optimized appropriately.  See [[hcard-example1-steps| hCard Example 1]] for the derivation.  
and an equivalent in hCard with various elements optimized appropriately.  See [[hcard-example1-steps| hCard Example 1]] for the derivation.  
-
<pre><nowiki>
+
<source lang=html4strict>
<div class="vcard">
<div class="vcard">
  <a class="url fn" href="http://tantek.com/">Tantek Çelik</a>
  <a class="url fn" href="http://tantek.com/">Tantek Çelik</a>
-
<div class="org">Technorati</div>
 
</div>
</div>
-
</nowiki></pre>
+
</source>
This hCard might be displayed as:
This hCard might be displayed as:
<div style="border: thin dashed black; width: 95%; padding: .5em 1em;">
<div style="border: thin dashed black; width: 95%; padding: .5em 1em;">
-
[http://tantek.com/ Tantek Çelik]<br />
+
[http://tantek.com/ Tantek Çelik]
-
Technorati
+
</div>
</div>
Note: The version information is unnecessary in hCard markup directly since the version will be defined by the profile of hCard that is used/referred to in the 'profile' attribute of the <head> element.
Note: The version information is unnecessary in hCard markup directly since the version will be defined by the profile of hCard that is used/referred to in the 'profile' attribute of the <head> element.
-
=== More Examples ===
+
===Live example===
-
See [[hcard-examples]] for more examples, including all examples from vCard RFC 2426 converted into hCard.
+
Here is [http://www.commerce.net/ Commercenet]'s contact details, as a live hCard which will be detected, on this page, by microformat parsing tools:
 +
 
 +
<div class="vcard">
 +
<div class="fn org">'''CommerceNet'''</div>
 +
<div class="url">'''<nowiki>http://www.commerce.net/</nowiki>'''</div>
 +
<div class="adr">'''<span class="type">Work</span>:'''
 +
<div class="street-address">'''169 University Avenue'''</div>
 +
<span class="locality">'''Palo Alto'''</span>, <span class="region">'''CA'''</span>&nbsp;&nbsp;<span class="postal-code">'''94301'''</span>
 +
<div class="country-name">'''USA'''</div>
 +
</div>
 +
<div class="tel">'''<span class="type">Work</span> +1-650-289-4040'''</div>
 +
<div class="tel">'''<span class="type">Fax</span> +1-650-289-4041'''</div>
 +
<div>'''Email <span class="email"><nowiki>info@commerce.net</nowiki></span>'''</div>
 +
</div>
 +
 
 +
The mark-up, emboldening omitted for clarity, with the following semantic improvements:
 +
* <code>abbr</code> to expand abbreviations
 +
* hyperlinking the org name with the url
 +
 
 +
<source lang=html4strict>
 +
<div class="vcard">
 +
  <a class="fn org url" href="http://www.commerce.net/">CommerceNet</a>
 +
  <div class="adr">
 +
    <span class="type">Work</span>:
 +
    <div class="street-address">169 University Avenue</div>
 +
    <span class="locality">Palo Alto</span>, 
 +
    <abbr class="region" title="California">CA</abbr>&nbsp;&nbsp;
 +
    <span class="postal-code">94301</span>
 +
    <div class="country-name">USA</div>
 +
  </div>
 +
  <div class="tel">
 +
  <span class="type">Work</span> +1-650-289-4040
 +
  </div>
 +
  <div class="tel">
 +
    <span class="type">Fax</span> +1-650-289-4041
 +
  </div>
 +
  <div>Email:
 +
  <span class="email">info@commerce.net</span>
 +
  </div>
 +
</div>
 +
</source>
 +
 
 +
=== More Examples ===
 +
See [[hcard-examples|hCard examples]] for more examples, including all examples from vCard [[rfc-2426|RFC2426]] converted into hCard.
== Examples in the wild ==
== Examples in the wild ==
-
*See [[hcard-examples-in-wild]]
+
This section is '''informative'''. The number of hCard examples in the wild has expanded far beyond the capacity of being kept inline in this specification. They have been moved to a [[hcard-examples-in-wild|separate page]].
 +
 
 +
See [[hcard-examples-in-wild|hCard Examples in the wild]].
== Implementations ==
== Implementations ==
-
This section is '''informative'''.
+
This section is '''informative'''. The number of hCard implementations has also expanded beyond the capacity of keeping them inline. They have been moved to a [[hcard-implementations|separate page]].
-
The following implementations have been developed which either generate or parse hCards. If you have an hCard implementation, feel free to add it to the top of this list. Once the list grows too big, we'll make a separate wiki page.
+
See [[hcard-implementations|hCard Implementations]].
-
*[http://www.alexa.com/site/devcorner/hcard Alexa hcard search]
+
-
*[http://leftlogic.com/info/articles/microformats_bookmarklet Microformats Bookmarklet] is a bookmarklet designed for Safari (works in Firefox and Camino) that overlays on the current page to allow users to import individual hCards or hCalendars.  Written by Remy Sharp.
+
-
*[http://elbewerk.com/2006/09/vcardexplorer-02.shtml vCardExplorer 0.2] is a Mac OS X Application, that displays VCF-Files and extracts hCards from Websites written by Daniel Kagemann.
+
-
* [http://placenamehere.com/mf/nnwextract/ Extract Microformats] is a script for NetNewsWire that supports extracting hCard and hCalendar data in blog posts (via technorati service). Written by [[User:ChrisCasciano|Chris Casciano]]
+
-
* [http://allinthehead.com/hkit/ hKit] is an open source PHP 5 parsing library with support for hCard.
+
-
* [http://kitchen.technorati.com/search Technorati Microformats Search] indexes [[hcard|hCard]], [[hcalendar|hCalendar]], and [[hreview|hReview]] as [http://tantek.com/log/2006/05.html#d31t1802 announced by Tantek].
+
-
** list of pages with indexing Issues so they can be looked into as to why data is not being extracted
+
-
** suda.co.uk/contact
+
-
** multipack.co.uk
+
-
* [http://www.webstandards.org/action/dwtf/microformats/ Dreamweaver Extension suite] from the [http://webstandards.org/ Web Standards Project] enables the authoring of hCards from within Dreamweaver 8.
+
== Articles ==
-
* [http://scooch.gr0w.com/ Scooch] is a slide show and presentation creator that generates a [[hCard]] for individual slide show authors and comment authors with a CSS button to parse and download via [http://suda.co.uk/projects/X2V/ X2V]. Also uses [[hReview]] for slide ratings and [[rel-tag]] for categories.
+
This section is <strong>informative</strong>. For <span id="Further_Reading">further reading</span> on hCard see [[hcard-articles]].
-
* [http://blog.codeeg.com/2006/03/20/flock-tails-flocktails/ Flocktails] - port of Tails extension for Flock 0.5.12 that looks for hCards, hCalendar, xFolk and hReview and tosses them into a handy topbar
+
-
*[http://opensource.reevoo.com/2006/03/08/release-uformats-12/ uformats] is a ruby library that can parse [[hCalendar]], [[hCard]], [[hReview]] and [[rel-tag]]
+
-
* [http://blog.codeeg.com/tails-firefox-extension-03/ Tails] is a Firefox Extension that will display the presence and details of microformats ([[hcard|hCard]], [[hcalendar|hCalendar]], [[hreview|hReview]], [[xfolk|xFolk]]) on a webpage. [https://addons.mozilla.org/firefox/2240/ Tails Export] is an extended version.
+
-
* [http://www.stripytshirt.co.uk/features/firefox/smartzilla Smartzilla is a Firefox Extension] that finds hCards on web pages and lets you add them to your addressbook.
+
-
* [http://placenamehere.com/TXP/pnh_mf/ pnh_mf] is a plugin for [http://textpattern.com/ Textpattern] that supports embedding hCard and other microformats in templates and blog posts. Written by [http://placenamehere.com/ Chris Casciano].
+
-
* There is [http://flickr.com/photos/factoryjoe/68755089/ evidence of built-in hCard support in the Konqueror browser].  Specifically, Konqueror 3.5, in KDE 3.5 (kubuntu Breezy w/ update).
+
-
* There is [http://tagcamp.org/index.cgi?ContactList evidence of a kwiki plugin for hCards].  Update: the [http://svn.kwiki.org/cwest/Kwiki-hCard/ hCard kwiki plugin svn repository].  See the [http://microwiki.caseywest.com/index.cgi?hCard documentation of the hCard kwiki plugin].
+
-
* [http://suda.co.uk/projects/X2V/ X2V] is a bookmarklet that parses hCard and produces a .vcf (vCard) stream.  Note: needs to be updated as the spec is refined
+
-
* [http://www.stripytshirt.co.uk Duncan Walker] has built [http://www.stripytshirt.co.uk/features/firefox/smartzilla a Firefox extension] that gets hCard data from a webpage, uses Brian Suda's XSL (locally) to transform it to vcard format and opens the resulting .vcf file.
+
-
* [http://george.hotelling.net/90percent/ George] has written a [http://george.hotelling.net/90percent/geekery/greasemonkey_and_microformats.php Greasemonkey user script] that detects hCards and allows users to easily add them to their address book application.  Relies on the X2V web service to do the conversion.
+
-
* [http://inside.glnetworks.de/ Martin Rehfeld] has updated the work of [http://blogmatrix.blogmatrix.com/ David Janes] and produced a [[Greasemonkey]] [http://inside.glnetworks.de/2006/06/05/microformats-have-arrived-in-firefox-15-greasemonkey-06/ script] that finds many microformat elements, including hCards, and [http://blog.davidjanes.com/mtarchives/2005_08.html#003379 provides a popup menu of actions]. The hCard to vCard conversion is done internally within the script. ''This will work with FireFox 1.5+/GreaseMonkey 0.6.4+ now.''
+
-
* [http://diveintomark.org/ Mark Pilgrim] has also written an [http://diveintomark.org/projects/greasemonkey/hcard/ hCard parser Greasemonkey user script].  It is self-contained and does not rely on the X2V web service.
+
-
* [http://www.oliverbrown.me.uk/2005/09/03/a-working-microformats-extension-to-simplexml/ Oliver Brown] has written an "extension" to [http://www.php.net/simplexml SimpleXML] that gives simple access to hCard information in PHP 5.
+
-
* [http://thedredge.org/ Andrew D. Hume] has built a system (Wordpress plugin?) for [http://thedredge.org/2005/06/using-hcards-in-your-blog/ using hcards in your blog] to represent people leaving comments on blog posts.
+
-
* The [http://tantek.com/microformats/hcard-creator.html hCard creator] is a very simple, yet illustrative, open source user interface / form / script which creates an hCard in real-time as you type in a set of contact information.
+
-
* [http://greenbytes.de/tech/webdav/rfc2629.xslt rfc2629.xslt] now attempts to generate hCard information ([http://ietf.org/rfc/rfc2629 RFC2629] is an XML format for authoring RFCs and Internet Drafts, see [http://greenbytes.de/tech/webdav/rfc2629xslt/rfc2629xslt.html example document])
+
-
* [http://tantek.com/microformats/buddylist2hcards.html iChat buddy list to hCards] - Open source AppleScript to automatically convert one's buddy list in the MacOSX iChat AIM client into a valid XHTML 1.0 Strict list of hCards.
+
-
* [http://dev.w3.org/cvsweb/2001/palmagent/ palmagent] is a collection of palmpilot and sidekick tools. It includes X2V derivatives xhtml2hcard.xsl and toICal.xsl plus some [http://dev.w3.org/cvsweb/2001/palmagent/hcardTest.html hcardTest] materials
+
-
* [http://www.openpsa.org/ OpenPsa 2.x] CRM application uses hCard for all person listings. The widget is [http://www.midgard-project.org/midcom-permalink-922834501b71daad856f35ec593c7a6d reusable across Midgard CMS]
+
-
* [http://www.metonymie.com Emiliano Martínez Luque] has written an experimental [http://www.metonymie.com/hCard_extract/app.html hCard finder and structured search application] that finds hCards within a given set of URLs and returns the ones that match the specified search criteria.
+
-
* [http://randomchaos.com/microformats/base/ Microformat Base] is an open-source PHP microformat aggregation crawler, currently recognizing hreview, hcalendar, and hcard.
+
-
== Additional Applications ==
+
==Buttons==
-
This section is '''informative'''.
+
You can use these buttons on pages with hCards. See [[buttons#hCard]] for any recent additions.
-
There are numerous potential additional uses and applications for hCards on the Web. The following are merely a few thoughts and possibilities that folks have come up with:
+
* http://www.crowley.nl/images/hcard.png (mirror: http://www.davidjanes.com/images/mf_hcard.png)
 +
* http://rbach.priv.at/2006/buttons/hcard.png
 +
* http://www.boogdesign.com/images/buttons/microformat_hcard.png
 +
* CSS-powered button, as evidenced at [http://re-run.com/about/microformat-badges microformat badges @ re-run]
-
* As an open standard/format for [http://www.gravatar.com/ Gravatars].
+
== Copyright ==
-
* Marking up individual authors of blog posts on a group blog
+
Per the public domain release on the authors' user pages ([[User:Tantek|Tantek Çelik]], [[User:Brian|Brian Suda]]) this specification is released into the public domain.
-
* Marking up people's names and URLs in a blogroll
+
 
-
* Any reference to people in blog posts (e.g. when citing them, or referencing them, or describing them, by name).
+
{{MicroFormatPublicDomainContributionStatement}}
-
* ...
+
 
 +
== Patents ==
 +
{{MicroFormatPatentStatement}}
== References ==
== References ==
Line 303: Line 463:
* [http://www.w3.org/TR/2002/REC-xhtml1-20020801/ XHTML 1.0 SE]
* [http://www.w3.org/TR/2002/REC-xhtml1-20020801/ XHTML 1.0 SE]
* [http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc2426.txt vCard RFC2426]
* [http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc2426.txt vCard RFC2426]
 +
* [http://www.itu.int/rec/T-REC-E.123-200102-I/en ITU recommendation E.123] format of telephone numbers (chargeable document)
 +
* [[rfc-2119|RFC 2119]]
=== Informative References ===
=== Informative References ===
 +
This section is '''informative'''.
 +
* [[hcard-history|hCard history]]
 +
** [http://wiki.oreillynet.com/foocamp04/index.cgi?SimpleSemanticFormats FOO Camp 2004 Simple Semantic Formats presentation, 2004-09-10]
 +
** [http://tantek.com/log/2004/09.html#hcard hCard term introduced and defined on the Web, 2004-09-30]
 +
** Contributed from http://developers.technorati.com/wiki/hCard 2005-06-20
 +
* [http://www.dante.net/np/ds/osi/9594-6-X.520.A4.ps X.520 in Postscript] ([http://72.14.253.104/search?q=cache:FjqzsFu4h20J:www.dante.net/np/ds/osi/9594-6-X.520.A4.ps HTMLization courtesy of Google Cache]) - vCard refers to ROLE as being "based on the X.520 Business Category explanatory attribute".
* [http://www.w3.org/2002/12/cal/rfc2426 HTML reformatted version of RFC2426]
* [http://www.w3.org/2002/12/cal/rfc2426 HTML reformatted version of RFC2426]
* [http://w3.org/TR/REC-CSS1 CSS1]
* [http://w3.org/TR/REC-CSS1 CSS1]
-
* [http://tantek.com/log/2004/09.html#hcard hCard term introduced and defined on the Web, 20040930]
 
-
* [http://wiki.oreillynet.com/foocamp04/index.cgi?SimpleSemanticFormats FOO Camp 2004 Simple Semantic Formats presentation, 20040910]
 
-
* Contributed from http://developers.technorati.com/wiki/hCard.
 
* [http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml11 XHTML 1.1]
* [http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml11 XHTML 1.1]
-
* [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/E.123 ITU-T Recommendation E.123] - for "TEL" values.
+
* [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/E.123 Wikipedia summary of ITU-T Recommendation E.123] - for "TEL" values.
 +
* [http://www.imc.org/pdi/ Internet Mail Consortium Personal Data Interchange vCard and vCalendar]
 +
* [[iso-8601|ISO8601]]
==== Specifications That Use hCard ====
==== Specifications That Use hCard ====
Line 320: Line 487:
==== Similar Work ====
==== Similar Work ====
 +
This section is '''informative'''.
* [http://www.intertwingly.net/wiki/pie/PaceBetterPersonElement Atom PaceBetterPersonElement]
* [http://www.intertwingly.net/wiki/pie/PaceBetterPersonElement Atom PaceBetterPersonElement]
* [http://www.jabber.org/jeps/jep-0054.html JEP-0054: vcard-temp]
* [http://www.jabber.org/jeps/jep-0054.html JEP-0054: vcard-temp]
-
== Related Pages ==
+
== Inspiration and Acknowledgments ==
-
* [http://microformats.org/code/hcard/creator hCard creator] ([[hcard-creator-feedback|feedback]]) - create your own hCard.
+
This section is '''informative'''.
-
* [[hcard-authoring|hCard authoring]] - learn how to add hCard markup to your existing contact info.
+
Thanks to: my good friend [http://vadim.com/ Vadim] who introduced me to vCard ''many'' years ago, and if I'd only paid more attention then, perhaps I could have helped a lot of people avoid wasting a lot of time reinventing various standards wheels.
-
* [[hcard-examples|hCard examples]] - Example usage of various classes within hCard.
+
-
* [[hcard-examples-in-wild]] - an on-going list of pages which use hCards.
+
-
* [[hcard-faq|hCard FAQ]] - If you have any questions about hCard, check here, and if you don't find answers, add your questions!
+
-
* [[hcard-parsing|hCard parsing]] - Normatively details of how to parse hCards.
+
-
* [[hcard-issues|hCard issues]] - Please add any specific issues with the specification to the issues page.
+
-
* [[hcard-feedback|hCard feedback]] - General feedback (as opposed to specific issues) should be added to the hCard feedback page.
+
-
* [[hcard-profile|hCard profile]] - The XMDP profile for hCard
+
-
This specification is a work in progress. As additional aspects are discussed, understood, and written, they will be added. These thoughts, issues, and questions are kept in separate pages.
+
== Notes on derivation from vCard ==
 +
This section is ''informative''.
 +
 
 +
<div id="Semantic_XHTML_Design_Principles">See: [[hcard-design-methodology]].</div>
 +
 
 +
=== More Semantic Equivalents ===
 +
For some properties there are HTML elements which better match and convey their semantics.  The following properties SHOULD be encoded with the following HTML:
 +
* <code>URL</code> in vCard becomes  <code><a class="url" href="...">...</a></code> inside the element with <code>class="vcard"</code> in hCard.
 +
* Similarly, <code>EMAIL</code> in vCard becomes <code><nowiki><a class="email" href="mailto:...">...</a></nowiki></code>
 +
* <code>PHOTO</code> in vCard becomes <code><img class="photo" src="..." alt="Photo of ..." /></code> or <code><object class="photo" data="..." type="...">Photo of ...</object></code>
 +
* <code>UID</code> in vCard simply becomes another semantic applied to a specific URL (or EMAIL) for an hCard.
 +
 
 +
=== Singular and Plural derivations ===
 +
The [[hcard#Singular_vs._Plural_Properties|lists of singular and plural properties]] have been derived by analyzing the semantics of the individual properties in vCard RFC2426 and determining logically that they MUST be singular per their semantics. See [[hcard-singular-properties]] for explanations.
 +
 
 +
==== Plural Properties Singularized ====
 +
Since plural property names become their singular equivalents, even if the original plural property permitted only a single value with multiple components, those multiple components are represented each with their own singularly named property and the the property is effectively multivalued and subject to the above treatment of multivalued properties.
 +
 
 +
== Related Pages ==
 +
{{hcard-related-pages}}
-
* [[hcard-brainstorming|hCard Brainstorming]] - where we are keeping our brainstorms and other explorations relating to hCard
+
[[Category:Specifications]]
-
* [[hcard-tests|hCard tests]] - a wiki page with actual embedded hCards to try parsing.
+
[[Category:hCard]]
-
== Further Reading ==
+
== Translations ==
-
* [http://www.digital-web.com/articles/microformats_primer/ Digital Web Magazine: Microformats Primer] by Garrett Dimon has a good intro to hCard
+
The English version of this specification is the only normative version. Read the hCard specification in additional <span id="languages">languages</span>:
-
* [http://24ways.org/advent/practical-microformats-with-hcard Practical Microformats with hCard] by Drew McLellan
+
* [[hcard-fr|<span lang="fr">Français</span>]]
-
* [http://www.naturalsearchblog.com/archives/2006/09/28/tips-for-local-search-engine-optimization-for-your-site/ Local Search Engine Optimization using Microformats] by Chris Silver Smith
+
* [[hcard-ja|<span lang="ja">日本語</span>]]
-
* [http://thedredge.org/ Andrew D. Hume] has written a blog post on [http://usabletype.com/articles/2005/usable-microformats/ usable microformats] which discusses hCard
+
* [[hcard-ru|<span lang="ru">Русский</span>]]
-
* [http://www.thefutureoftheweb.com/blog/2006/1/hcard Jesse Skinner's introduction to hCard]
+
* [[hcard-th|<span lang="th">ภาษาไทย</span>]]
-
* [http://blog.usweb.com/ Shaun Shull's] great post on [http://blog.usweb.com/archives/how-microformats-affect-search-engine-optimization-seo How Microformats Affect SEO], including his [[hcard|hCard]] as an example.
+
* [[hcard-zh|<span lang="zh">漢語</span>]]
-
* See also [http://www.technorati.com/cosmos/referer.html blogs discussing this page] and the [http://technorati.com/tags/hcard hCard tag]
+
Help [[how-to-start-new-translation|translate hCard into more languages]].

Current revision

See latest version: h-card

Tantek Çelik (Editor, Author), Brian Suda (Author)


hCard is a simple, open format for publishing people, companies, organizations on the web, using a 1:1 representation of vCard (RFC2426) properties and values in HTML. hCard is one of several open microformat standards suitable for embedding data in HTML/HTML5, and Atom/RSS/XHTML or other XML.

Translations: Français日本語Русскийภาษาไทย漢語(Add your language)
Copyright and patents statements apply. See acknowledgments.

Example

hCards are most often used to represent people:

<div class="vcard">
 <a class="url fn" href="http://tantek.com/">Tantek Çelik</a>
</div>

and organizations:

<div class="vcard">
 <a class="url fn org" href="http://microformats.org/">microformats.org</a>
</div>

Get started

bullet.gif Create a new hCard
bullet.gif Learn hCard authoring


The class vcard is a root class name that indicates the presence of an hCard.

The classes url, fn, and org define properties of the hCard.

Properties

Common hCard properties (inside class vcard)
  • fn - name, formatted/full. required
  • n - structured name, container for:
    • honorific-prefix - e.g. Ms., Mr., Dr.
    • given-name - given (often first) name
    • additional-name - other/middle name
    • family-name - family (often last) name
    • honorific-suffix - e.g. Ph.D., Esq.
  • nickname - nickname/alias, e.g. IRC nick
  • org - company/organization
  • photo - photo, icon, avatar
  • url - home page for this contact
  • email - email address
  • tel - telephone number
  • adr - structured address, container for:
    • street-address - street #+name, apt/ste
    • locality - city or village
    • region - state or province
    • postal-code - postal code, e.g. U.S. ZIP
    • country-name - country name
  • bday - birthday. ISO date.
  • category - for tagging contacts
  • note - notes about the contact
Example hCard of common properties:
  • <div class="vcard">
    • <span class="fn">Sally Ride</span>
    • (<span class="n">
      • <span class="honorific-prefix">Dr.</span>
      • <span class="given-name">Sally</span>
      • <abbr class="additional-name">K.</abbr>
      • <span class="family-name">Ride</span>
      • <span class="honorific-suffix">Ph.D.</span></span>),
    • <span class="nickname">sallykride</span> (IRC)
    • <div class="org">Sally Ride Science</div>
    • <img class="photo" src="http://example.com/sk.jpg"/>
    • <a class="url" href="http://sally.example.com">w</a>,
    • <a class="email" href="mailto:sally@example.com">e</a>
    • <div class="tel">+1.818.555.1212</div>
    • <div class="adr">
      • <div class="street-address">123 Main st.</div>
      • <span class="locality">Los Angeles</span>,
      • <abbr class="region" title="California">CA</abbr>,
      • <span class="postal-code">91316</span>
      • <div class="country-name">U.S.A</div></div>
    • <time class="bday">1951-05-26</time> birthday
    • <div class="category">physicist</div>
    • <div class="note">1st American woman in space.</div>
  • </div>
See the full list of properties for the complete list.

Contents


Status

hCard 1.0 is a microformats.org specification. Public discussion on hCard takes place on hcard-feedback, the #microformats irc channel on irc.freenode.net, and microformats-discuss mailing list.

Errata and Updates

Known errors and issues in this specification are corrected in resolved and closed issues. Please check there before reporting issues.

The hCard 1.0.1 update is currently under development and incorporates known errata corrections as well as the value-class-pattern.

Background

The vCard standard (RFC2426), has been broadly interoperably implemented (e.g. Apple's "Address Book" application built into MacOSX).

In addition, many bloggers identify themselves by name and discuss their friends and family. With just a tad bit of structure, bloggers can discuss people in their blog(s) in such a way that spiders and other aggregators can retrieve this information, automatically convert them to vCards, and use them in any vCard application or service.

This specification introduces the hCard format, which uses a 1:1 representation of the properties and values of the aforementioned vCard standard, in semantic HTML. Bloggers can both embed hCards directly in their web pages, and style them with CSS to make them appear as desired. In addition, hCard enables applications to retrieve information directly from web pages without having to reference a separate file.

Use the hCard creator and copy the HTML code it generates to your blog or website to publish your contact info.

Conformance

The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT", "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this document are to be interpreted as described in RFC 2119.

Format

In General

The vCard standard (RFC2426) forms the basis of hCard.

The basic format of hCard is to use vCard object/property names in lower-case for class names, and to map the nesting of vCard objects directly into nested HTML elements.

Root Class Name

The root class name for an hCard is "vcard". An element with a class name of "vcard" is itself called an hCard.

Properties and Sub-properties

The properties of an hCard are represented by elements inside the hCard. Elements with class names of the listed properties represent the values of those properties. Some properties have sub-properties, and those are represented by elements inside the elements for properties.

Property List

hCard properties (sub-properties in parentheses like this)

Required:

Optional:

Property Notes

1. ^: The 'n' property is OPTIONAL if any implied 'n' optimization rules are in effect.
2. ^: tel - Authors MAY follow the E.123 standard for writing values of telephone numbers. Letter values (e.g. +1-555-FORMATS) MUST be converted to numbers. Use an abbr to display letters and provide a numerical value simultaneously, e.g. <abbr title="+15553676287">+1-555-FORMATS</abbr>.
3. ^: tz - timezones are indicated with the timezone offset, e.g. PST (<span class="tz">-08:00</span>).

Singular vs. Plural Properties

Singular properties: 'fn', 'n', 'bday', 'tz', 'geo', 'sort-string', 'uid', 'class', 'rev'. For properties which are singular, the first descendant element with that class SHOULD take effect, any others being ignored.

All other properties MAY be plural. Each class instance of such properties creates a new instance of that property.

Human vs. Machine readable

The human visible text contents of an element for a property represents the value of that property, with a few exceptions:

If an <abbr> element is used for a property, then the 'title' attribute (if present) of the <abbr> element is the value of the property, instead of the contents of the element, which instead provide a more human presentable version of the value.

If an <a> element is used for one or more properties, it MUST be treated as follows:

  1. For the 'photo' property and any other property that takes a URL as its value, the href="..." attribute provides the property value.
  2. For other properties, the element's content is the value of the property.

If an <img> element is used for one or more properties, it MUST be treated as follows:

  1. For the 'photo' property and any other property that takes a URL as its value, the src="..." attribute provides the property value.
  2. For other properties, the <img> element's 'alt' attribute is the value of the property.

If an <object> element is used for one or more properties, it MUST be treated as follows:

  1. For the 'photo' property and any other property that takes a URL as its value, the data="..." attribute provides the property value.
  2. For other properties, the element's content is the value of the property.

Value excerpting

Sometimes only part of an element which is the equivalent for a property is used for the value of the property. This typically occurs when a property has a subtype, like 'tel'. For this purpose, the special class name "value" is used to excerpt out the subset of the element that is the value of the property. E.g. here is an hCard fragment for marking up a home phone number:

vCard:

TEL;TYPE=HOME:+1.415.555.1212

hCard:

<span class="tel">
 <span class="type">home</span>:
 <span class="value">+1.415.555.1212</span>
</span>

This hCard fragment could be displayed as:

home: +1.415.555.1212

You may want to customize/localize the visible punctuation and not want to include it in what machines see. Use multiple class="value" elements which are then concatenated. E.g.

<span class="tel">
 <span class="type">home</span>:
 <span class="value">+1</span>.<span class="value">415</span>.<span class="value">555</span>.<span class="value">1212</span></span>
</span>

No change in display, but the parsed hCard property value then becomes in vCard:

vCard:

TEL;TYPE=HOME:+14155551212


Property Exceptions

vCard has several properties which either do not make sense on, or are already implied within the context of a web page. This section explains what to (not) do with them.

  1. vCard's NAME, PROFILE, SOURCE, PRODID, VERSION properties are defined in Sections 2.1.2, 2.1.3, 2.1.4, 3.6.3, 3.6.9 of RFC2426. Content publishers MUST NOT use these properties in their hCards, and as such, hCard consumers/parsers MUST IGNORE these properties if they are found within an hCard. Instead. hCard to vCard converters SHOULD use the title of the page where the hCard is found (e.g. the <title> element in HTML documents) to construct the NAME property, MAY output a PROFILE value of "VCARD" per RFC2426, SHOULD use the URL of the page where the hCard is found to construct the SOURCE property (e.g. perhaps as a parameter to a URL/service that converts hCards to vCards), for an output vCard stream (e.g. a .vcf file). Only services/applications that output actual vCards should write the PRODID property, with the product identifier for said service/application. Similarly, only such services/applications should write the VERSION property, with the value "3.0" (without quotes) per RFC2426 Section 3.6.9.

Organization Contact Info

If the "FN" and "ORG" (organization) properties have the exact same value (typically because they are set on the same element, e.g. class="fn org"), then the hCard represents contact information for a company, organization or place and SHOULD be treated as such. In this case the author also MUST NOT set the "N" property, or set it (and any sub-properties) explicitly to the empty string "". Thus parsers SHOULD handle the missing "N" property, in this case by implying empty values for all the "N" sub-properties.

Implied "N" Optimization

Although vCard requires that the "N" property be present, the authors of the vCard specification (RFC2426) themselves do not include "N" properties in their vCards near the end of the spec (p.38). This apparent contradiction can be resolved by simply allowing the "FN" property to imply "N" property values in typical cases provided in the spec. We do so explicitly in hCard.

If "FN" and "ORG" are not the same (see previous section), and the value of the "FN" property is exactly two words (separated by whitespace), and there is no explicit "N" property, then the "N" property is inferred from the "FN" property. For "FN"s with either one word see below, and for three or more, the author MUST explicitly markup the "N", except for the organization contact info case, see above for that.

  1. The content of "FN" is broken into two "words" separated by whitespace.
  2. The first word of the "FN" is interpreted as the "given-name" for the "N" property.
  3. The second/last word of the "FN" is interpreted as the "family-name" for the "N" property.
  4. Exception: If the first word ends in a "," comma, then the first word (minus the comma at the end) is interpreted as the "family-name" and the second word is interpreted as the "given-name".

This allows simplification in the typical case of people stating:

Implied "nickname" Optimization

Due to the prevalence of the use of nicknames/handles/usernames in actual content published on the Web (e.g. authors of reviews), hCard also has an implied "nickname" optimization to handle this.

Similar to the implied "n" optimization, if "FN" and "ORG" are not the same, and the value of the "FN" property is exactly one word, and there is no explicit "N" property, then:

  1. The content of the "FN" MUST be treated as a "nickname" property value.
  2. Parsers SHOULD handle the missing "N" property by implying empty values for all the "N" sub-properties.

Though parsers MUST follow the implied nickname optimization, publishers SHOULD explicitly indicate the "nickname" even in this case, e.g.:

<span class="vcard">
 <span class="fn nickname">daveman692</span>
</span>

The hCard MAY have additional explicit "nickname" property values in addition to the implied nickname.

Implied "organization-name" Optimization

The "ORG" property has two subproperties, organization-name and organization-unit. Very often authors only publish the organization-name. Thus if an "ORG" property has no "organization-name" inside it, then its entire contents MUST be treated as the "organization-name".

Tags as Categories

Categories in hCard MAY be represented by tags with rel-tag. When a category property is a rel-tag, the tag (as defined by rel-tag) is used for that category.

type subproperty values

The 'type' subproperty in particular takes different values depending on which property it is a subproperty of. These 'type' subproperty values are case-INSENSITIVE, meaning "Home" is the same as "home", as well as multivalued, e.g. a tel can be home and preferred:

vCard:

TEL;TYPE=HOME,PREF:+1.415.555.1212

hCard:

<span class="tel"><span class="type">Home</span> (<span class="type">pref</span>erred):
 <span class="value">+1.415.555.1212</span>
</span>

This could be displayed as:

Home (preferred): +1.415.555.1212

type with unspecified value

When the type of a property is specified, and there is no explicit value specified, then everything in the property except for the type is considered the value of the property. E.g.

<span class="tel"><span class="type">Home</span> +1.415.555.1212</span>

is equivalent to:

<span class="tel"><span class="type">Home</span><span class="value"> +1.415.555.1212</span></span>

And thus the type is "home" and the value is "+1.415.555.1212".

adr tel email types

The following lists are informative. See RFC2426 sections 3.2.1 ADR, 3.3.1 TEL, and 3.3.2 EMAIL respectively for normative type values. They are repeated here for convenience. Default type subproperty value(s) is(are) first in each list and indicated in ALL CAPS. types may be multivalued.

Profile

The hCard XMDP profile is at http://microformats.org/profile/hcard

Content that uses hCard SHOULD reference this profile, e.g.

<link rel="profile" href="http://microformats.org/profile/hcard">

or

This content uses <a rel="profile" href="http://microformats.org/profile/hcard">hCard</a>.

or

<head profile="http://microformats.org/profile/hcard">

(profile attribute is deprecated in HTML5) Content may combine the above methods as well.

Parsing Details

See hCard parsing.

Examples

This section is informative.

Sample vCard

Here is a sample vCard:

BEGIN:VCARD
VERSION:3.0
N:Çelik;Tantek
FN:Tantek Çelik
URL:http://tantek.com/
END:VCARD

and an equivalent in hCard with various elements optimized appropriately. See hCard Example 1 for the derivation.

<div class="vcard">
 <a class="url fn" href="http://tantek.com/">Tantek Çelik</a>
</div>

This hCard might be displayed as:

Tantek Çelik

Note: The version information is unnecessary in hCard markup directly since the version will be defined by the profile of hCard that is used/referred to in the 'profile' attribute of the <head> element.

Live example

Here is Commercenet's contact details, as a live hCard which will be detected, on this page, by microformat parsing tools:

CommerceNet
http://www.commerce.net/
Work:
169 University Avenue

Palo Alto, CA  94301

USA
Work +1-650-289-4040
Fax +1-650-289-4041
Email

The mark-up, emboldening omitted for clarity, with the following semantic improvements:

<div class="vcard">
  <a class="fn org url" href="http://www.commerce.net/">CommerceNet</a>
  <div class="adr">
    <span class="type">Work</span>:
    <div class="street-address">169 University Avenue</div>
    <span class="locality">Palo Alto</span>,  
    <abbr class="region" title="California">CA</abbr>&nbsp;&nbsp;
    <span class="postal-code">94301</span>
    <div class="country-name">USA</div>
  </div>
  <div class="tel">
   <span class="type">Work</span> +1-650-289-4040
  </div>
  <div class="tel">
    <span class="type">Fax</span> +1-650-289-4041
  </div>
  <div>Email: 
   <span class="email">info@commerce.net</span>
  </div>
</div>

More Examples

See hCard examples for more examples, including all examples from vCard RFC2426 converted into hCard.

Examples in the wild

This section is informative. The number of hCard examples in the wild has expanded far beyond the capacity of being kept inline in this specification. They have been moved to a separate page.

See hCard Examples in the wild.

Implementations

This section is informative. The number of hCard implementations has also expanded beyond the capacity of keeping them inline. They have been moved to a separate page.

See hCard Implementations.

Articles

This section is informative. For further reading on hCard see hcard-articles.

Buttons

You can use these buttons on pages with hCards. See buttons#hCard for any recent additions.

Copyright

Per the public domain release on the authors' user pages (Tantek Çelik, Brian Suda) this specification is released into the public domain.

Public Domain Contribution Requirement. Since the author(s) released this work into the public domain, in order to maintain this work's public domain status, all contributors to this page agree to release their contributions to this page to the public domain as well. Contributors may indicate their agreement by adding the public domain release template to their user page per the Voluntary Public Domain Declarations instructions. Unreleased contributions may be reverted/removed.

Patents

This specification is subject to a royalty free patent policy, e.g. per the W3C Patent Policy, and IETF RFC3667 & RFC3668.

References

Normative References

Informative References

This section is informative.

Specifications That Use hCard

Similar Work

This section is informative.

Inspiration and Acknowledgments

This section is informative. Thanks to: my good friend Vadim who introduced me to vCard many years ago, and if I'd only paid more attention then, perhaps I could have helped a lot of people avoid wasting a lot of time reinventing various standards wheels.

Notes on derivation from vCard

This section is informative.

More Semantic Equivalents

For some properties there are HTML elements which better match and convey their semantics. The following properties SHOULD be encoded with the following HTML:

Singular and Plural derivations

The lists of singular and plural properties have been derived by analyzing the semantics of the individual properties in vCard RFC2426 and determining logically that they MUST be singular per their semantics. See hcard-singular-properties for explanations.

Plural Properties Singularized

Since plural property names become their singular equivalents, even if the original plural property permitted only a single value with multiple components, those multiple components are represented each with their own singularly named property and the the property is effectively multivalued and subject to the above treatment of multivalued properties.

Related Pages

The hCard specification is a work in progress. As additional aspects are discussed, understood, and written, they will be added. These thoughts, issues, and questions are kept in separate pages.

Translations

The English version of this specification is the only normative version. Read the hCard specification in additional languages:

Help translate hCard into more languages.

Categories

hCard 1.0 was last modified: Friday, December 11th, 2015

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