Citation Examples

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The following examples are real world examples of citations found on the web. Please add to this list. The idea is that we get a solid sample of examples and see what commonalities there are amonst them and try to build this microformat so that it can meet 80% of typical uses.

To add examples: please first add a copy of the HTML source for your example at the citation-examples-markup page, then add a description of the example to this page, with a link to the corresponding section on citation-examples-markup. Thanks!

Citation Mark Up in the Wild

Mark up examples, e.g. including from reference publisher's websites (online catalogs), including ABC-CLIO, Greenwood Press, Marshall Cavendish, Oxford University Press (USA) and Thomson Gale. Examples are broken down and organized by element.

ABC-CLIO Product detail page

ABC-CLIO example ABC-CLIO Original Markup

  • title
  • subtitle
  • author
  • image
  • publication date
  • pages
  • volumes
  • specifications (book dimentions 8.5x11, weight, etc)
  • Format - (Hardback, softback)
  • Price
  • ISBN

ACM Digital Library Search Result Examples

The ACM Digital Library is a heavily used computer science literature database.

The ACM Original Markup contained two examples, a journal article and a conference proceedings article.

Journal article:

  • title
  • authors
  • Pages
  • format (PDF)
  • Additional Information
  • abstract
  • index terms
  • journal
  • issue
  • volume
  • pubdate
  • DOI

Conference Proceedings:

  • title
  • authors
  • author institutions
  • source (conference + proceedings name)
  • page
  • year
  • isbn
  • publisher name & address
  • DOI
  • abstract
  • subject category labels
  • keywords

Amazon.com citation info

This is from a detail page on Amazon.com for a book.

Amazon's Original Markup

  • title
  • author
  • series title
  • page

CiteSeer database search results

The CiteSeer database has been another heavily used Computer Science online resource, and it has minimal markup:

  1. CiteSeer's Original Markup
  2. CiteSeer's Original Example 2
  • author
  • title
  • journal
  • pages
  • publication date
  • URL
  • Accessed On

CiteULike.org citation listing

CiteULike

CiteULike's Original Markup

  • title
  • author
  • subjects
  • image
  • Volume
  • Number
  • publication date
  • page

Links to services with the following IDs embedded in the link

  • Z3988
  • DOI
  • Pubmed
  • Hubmed

CiteProc XHTML Output

CiteProc Original Markup

The XHTML output for CiteProc[1] wasn't designed per se as a microformat, but is probably not a bad place to start. It is designed to handle a wide range of content. Here is the APA output:

  • refID (HTML @ID)
  • creator
  • role (to indicate editors and translators)
  • date
  • title
  • volume
  • issue
  • page
  • issue
  • container (a book serves as container for a chapter)
  • type (book, newspaper, proceedings)
  • edition
  • publisher
  • place
  • location (for urls and physical locations)
  • access date (for online items)

Google Cache

Original Markup

  • url
  • retrieved date

Greenwood Press featured book

greenwood press home page Original Markup

  • title
  • subtitle
  • author
  • ISBN
  • Price
  • Description

Greenwood Press product detail page

Product detail page Original Markup

  • Title
  • subtitle
  • authors
  • AuthorsNote
  • BookCode (internal code system)
  • ISBN
  • Page
  • Publisher
  • Publication Date
  • Price
  • Availability
  • MediaType
  • categories
  • LC Card Number
  • LCC Class
  • Dewey Class

IEEE IEEExplore Search Results Markup

Original Markup

  • title
  • authors
  • journal
  • issue
  • volume
  • issue
  • pubdate
  • page
  • Digital Object Identifier (DOI)
  • summary


Marshall Cavendish product page

product page Original Markup

  • ISBN
  • Series
  • Title
  • publisher
  • Specifications (dimentions/weight)
  • Authors
  • Target Audience
  • Price
  • description

Ning

Original Example

  • title
  • publications date
  • retrieved on

Oxford University Press (USA) home page

homepage Original Markup

  • title
  • subTitle
  • edition
  • byline
  • ISBN
  • format - hardback
  • publication Date
  • price
  • description
  • related

Oxford University Press (USA) product detail page

Product page

Original Markup

  • title
  • subTitle
  • edition
  • byline
  • image
  • isbnNumber
  • format - hardback
  • pages
  • publication Date
  • availability
  • price

Thomson Gale product detail page

Original Markup

  • title
  • excerp
  • Volume
  • Publisher
  • description
  • Published date
  • ISBN
  • Product number (internal code system)
  • Pages
  • Shipping Weight
  • price

RFC vCard Example

Original Markup

  • refID (HTML @ID)
  • title
  • publication
  • title
  • Journal
  • Volume
  • Issue
  • page
  • pubdate
  • RFC ID

University of Virginia

Original Markup

  • title
  • publication date
  • retrived on
  • location
  • organization

W3C XHTML Spec Example

Original Markup

  • refID (HTML @ID)
  • URL
  • title
  • subtitle
  • part (1 of X)
  • journal
  • authors
  • pubdate
  • language
  • ISO/IEC ID
  • RFC ID

XHTML1.0 Spec references

PubMed Medical Journal Example

Original Markup

  • abstract
  • title
  • publisher
  • journal
  • date of publication
  • volume
  • issue
  • pages
  • language
  • Review (BOOLEAN YES/NO)
  • PubMedID

BibDesk Default Template

Original Markup

This is a pretty simplistic template for a very general app, but it seems to be OK for most BD users.

  • Title
  • Author
  • Journal
  • Volume
  • Pages
  • Date
  • Url
  • Abstract

Wikipedia

Wikipedia makes extensive use of bibliographic citations, in particular to point readers to further information sources. There are differing formats depending on Wikipedia's language.

Note that Wikipedia values are often links to other pages on Wikipedia (used elsewhere, those URLs might be more canonical, such as to an author or publisher's website).

English Wikipedia

The kinds of citations used on the site run the full gamut. Here are breakdowns of four categories previously mentioned:

Original Markup

Original Markup

  • id
  • title
  • url
  • Retrieved/Accessed On
  • Publication Date
  • Journal
Book

Example Example Markup

  • title
  • author
  • publisher
  • year
  • ISBN
  • url (indirectly via special wikipedia ISBN page)
Book Infobox

The Book Infobox template from wikipedia shows a separate schema that is being used for many book pages on wikipedia to mark up a summary box about the book.

See also Other Wikipedia book templates & Wikipedia citation templates.

  • name
  • title_orig
  • translator
  • image
  • image_caption
  • author
  • illustrator
  • cover_artist
  • country
  • language
  • series
  • subject
  • genre
  • publisher
  • release_date
  • english_release_date
  • media_type
  • pages
  • isbn
  • preceded_by
  • followed_by


Journal Articles

See also:Wikipedia infobox for journals

Example Example Markup

  • author (truncated list)
  • year
  • title
  • journal title
  • journal number
  • page range
  • DOI
Court cases

Example Example Markup

  • title
  • case number
    • note that legal standards for referring to cases include some inscrutable abbreviations that are probably more detailed than just "case number"
  • court name
  • year
  • description/abstract
U.S. Law

Example Example Markup

  • title (title number, for example "50" in "50 U.S.C. chapter 36."
  • chapter title (name, for example "Foreign Intelligence Surveillance" )
  • chapter number
  • section, paragraph, subparagraph numbers (optionally)
Conference presentations

Example Example Markup

  • title
  • location
  • date
  • author (implied - the page is about this person)


Historical Sources

Example Example Markup

  • source / location
  • title
  • publisher
  • year
  • description
  • url
U.S. Patent

Example Example Markup

  • number

German Wikipedia

EPrints.org

example example markup

Based on Expressing Dublin Core in HTML/XHTML meta and link elements and rfc2731, Eprints.org uses the following Dublin Core terms in meta tags in the HTML HEAD of each paper's page:

  • title
  • creator (author)
  • description (abstract)
  • date
  • type
  • identifier (a url)
  • format
  • fulltext
    • this is in a rel-alternate link element. The class is 'fulltext', and the href is the same link as in format, only a valid URL this time.

In the body of the page, they use the following classes, now no longer DC terms:

  • title
  • authors (a flat list with abbreviated names)
  • year
  • conference
  • conference location

Wolfram Mathworld

example example markup

A book. First citation from the page on "Quasi-Monte Carlo Method". Has very little markup.

  • authors
  • title
  • publisher (name and location)
  • date (just year)

LibraryThing

  • [2] (on-line book cataloguing and reviews

Self-Citation Example

One example of an article that includes a statement "please cite as" (a self-description):

  • title
  • author
  • periodical (journal) title
  • volume
  • issue
  • pages
  • year

Citation of an Online Resource

example markup

At University of Michigan's Center for Research on Learning and Teaching you see citations like this:

Chief Academic Officers of the Big 12 Universities (2000). Big 12 Faculty Fellowship Program. Retrieved December 20, 2000 from the World Wide Wed: http://www.k-state.edu/provost/academic/big12/big12guide.htm.

  • title
  • publication year
  • department/author
  • retrieval date
  • URL


"Many, Many Maps," First Monday contains citations to online resources like this:

E.S. Raymond, 2000. “The Cathedral and the Bazaar,” version 3.0, at http://www.catb.org/~esr/writings/cathedral-bazaar/cathedral-bazaar, accessed 18 October 2006.

  • author
  • publication year
  • web page title
  • URL
  • accessed date


"The Role of Technology in World History Teaching" by T. Mills Kelly uses the following citation format for online resources:

Hitler Historical Museum, http://www.hitler.org/. Accessed March 21, 2006.

  • title
  • URL
  • accessed date

OCLC WorldCat Online

Book

example example-makrup

  • title
  • type (book)
  • publisher name
  • publisher location
  • copyright date
  • isbn
  • oclc number
  • subjects
  • author
  • z39.88 (COinS)

Journal

example example-makrup

  • title
  • type (journal)
  • publisher
  • issn
  • oclc number
  • subjects
  • z39.88 (COinS)

West Midland Bird Club

Uses OpenCOinS

Features include:

  • title
  • author
  • date
  • price (historic, at time of publication)
  • format
  • publisher
  • number of pages
  • ISBN/ ISSN
  • product dimensions
  • page numbers of article
  • image(s)

Amazon

Product listings, e.g. [4]

  • title
  • author
  • price
  • format
  • publisher
  • number of pages
  • language
  • ISBN
  • product dimensions
  • shipping weighta
  • average customer review
  • image
  • Amazon.com Sales Rank

ABE

Product listings, e.g. [5]

  • title
  • author
  • ISBN
  • publisher
  • publication date
  • country
  • edition
  • condition
  • whether signed
  • format/binding
  • number of pages
  • bookseller
  • inventory number
  • price
  • shipping costs
  • quantity

Open URL

Upcoming

Open Library

External Lists of Citation Examples

Implied schema

List of all properties

This are a summation of all the properties in the examples, I have tried to logically group them together.

  • title
  • subtitle
  • author
  • editor
  • translator
  • image
  • date (issued, copyrighted, accessed)
  • language
  • description/Summary/abstract
  • excerpt
  • index terms
  • categories (keywords, tags, labels, etc.)

RELATIONS

  • container (publication; periodicals, books, etc.)
  • collection (series and so forth)
  • event (conference, etc.)
  • original (for republished material)

LOCATION INFORMATION

  • pages
  • volume
  • series title
  • Series
  • edition
  • issue
  • publication
  • journal
  • part (1 of X)

PHYSICAL ATTRIBUTES

  • Specifications (dimentions/weight)
  • Format/type (book, newspaper, proceedings)

IDENTIFIERS

  • ISBN
  • LC Card Number
  • LCC Class
  • Dewey Class
  • URL
  • RFC ID
  • ISO/IEC ID
  • DOI
  • PubMedID

PUBLISHER

  • publisher


These are sort of left overs, the are not really about citations, but more about commerce or other things. If they are important we can move them to the above list.

  • refID (HTML @ID)
  • Reviewed (BOOLEAN YES/NO)
  • Availability
  • Price
  • Shipping Weight
  • related
  • Product number (internal system code)
  • BookCode (internal system code)
  • AuthorsNote
  • Additional Information
  • Target Audience

Analysis of Examples

With exception of just a few properties, all of the above appeared in atleast two different examples. The following properties were very common in most the example formats:

  • title
  • subtitle
  • author
  • publication date
  • description
  • pages
  • ISBN
  • publisher

Styles

This section should be moved and incorporated into Citation Formats.

This does NOT define a format, but instead shows how the format should be displayed. This is something out of the direct scope of this project. CSS styles will handle the look-and-feel of the text, and the author can put it in any order they choose. These links are mentioned for two reasons, one is informative, the other is so we know at least meet the minimum properties that are used in the styles.

Other examples


See also