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= Example Citation Formats =
+
{{DISPLAYTITLE: Citation Examples }}
The following examples are real world examples that been pulled from places around the web. Please add to this list. The idea is that we get a solid sample of examples and see what commonalities there are amonst them and try to build this microformat so that it can meet 80% of all the possible properties.
 
  
See also:
+
The following examples are real world examples of citations found on the web. Please add to this list. The idea is that we get a solid sample of examples and see what commonalities there are amonst them and try to build this microformat so that it can meet 80% of typical uses.
* [[cite]]
+
 
* [[cite-formats]]
+
'''To add examples:''' please first add a copy of the HTML source for your example at the [[citation-examples-markup]] page, then add a description of the example to this page, with a link to the corresponding section on [[citation-examples-markup]]. Thanks!
* [[cite-brainstorming]]
+
 
 +
__TOC__
  
 
== Citation Mark Up in the Wild ==
 
== Citation Mark Up in the Wild ==
Mark up examples from reference publisher's websites (online catalogs), including ABC-CLIO, Greenwood Press, Marshall Cavendish, Oxford University Press (USA) and Thomson Gale. Examples are broken down and organized by element.  
+
Mark up examples, e.g. including from reference publisher's websites (online catalogs), including ABC-CLIO, Greenwood Press, Marshall Cavendish, Oxford University Press (USA) and Thomson Gale. Examples are broken down and organized by element.  
 +
 
 +
=== ABC-CLIO Product detail page ===
 +
[http://www.abc-clio.com/products/overview.aspx?productid=109327 ABC-CLIO example]
 +
[[citation-examples-markup#ABC-CLIO_Product_detail_page.C2.A0.28http:.2F.2Fwww.abc-clio.com.2Fproducts.2Foverview.aspx.3Fproductid.3D109327.29|ABC-CLIO Original Markup]]
 +
 
 +
* title
 +
* subtitle
 +
* author
 +
* image
 +
* publication date
 +
* pages
 +
* volumes
 +
* specifications (book dimentions 8.5x11, weight, etc)
 +
* Format - (Hardback, softback)
 +
* Price
 +
* ISBN
  
View complete [[citations in the wild]].
+
=== ACM Digital Library Search Result Examples ===
  
=== Book titles: ===
+
The [http://www.acm.org/dl/ ACM Digital Library] is a heavily used computer science literature database.
<pre>
 
&lt;span id="title" class="producttitle"&gt;The 1920's&lt;/span&gt;
 
(ABC-CLIO product detail page)
 
  
&lt;div class="title"&gt; &lt;a href="..."&gt;The Greenwood Encyclopedia of World Folklore and Folklife&lt;/a&gt; &lt;/div&gt;
+
The [[citation-examples-markup#ACM_Digital_Library_Search_Result_Examples|ACM Original Markup]] contained two examples, a journal article and a conference proceedings article.
(Greenwood Press homepage)
 
  
&lt;span id="lblTitle" class="book_headline block"&gt;The Greenwood Encyclopedia of World Folklore and Folklife&lt;/span&gt;
+
''Journal article:''
(Greenwood Press product detail page)
 
  
&lt;td width="35%"&gt;&lt;font id="title_catalogue_title_font"&gt;Title&lt;/font&gt;&lt;/td&gt;
+
* title
&lt;td width="65%"&gt;&lt;font id="text"&gt;The New Terrorism: Anatomy, Trends and Counter-strategies&lt;/font&gt;&lt;/td&gt;
+
* authors
(Marshall Cavendish product detail page)
+
* Pages
 +
* format (PDF)
 +
* Additional Information
 +
* abstract
 +
* index terms
 +
* journal
 +
* issue
 +
* volume
 +
* pubdate
 +
* DOI
  
&lt;h2&gt; &lt;a href="..."&gt;The Glorious Cause&lt;/a&gt; &lt;/h2&gt;
+
''Conference Proceedings:''
(Oxford Univ. Press, homepage)
 
  
&lt;h1&gt;The Glorious Cause&lt;/h1&gt;
+
* title
(OUP, product detail page)
+
* authors
 +
* author institutions
 +
* source (conference + proceedings name)
 +
* page
 +
* year
 +
* isbn
 +
* publisher name & address
 +
* DOI
 +
* abstract
 +
* subject category labels
 +
* keywords
  
&lt;h2&gt;Contemporary Literary Criticism&lt;/h2&gt;
+
=== Amazon.com citation info ===
(Thomson Gale, product detail page)
 
  
&lt;span id="ctlBookDetailHeader_lblTitle" class="ProdTitle"&gt;Talk and Interaction in Social Research Methods&lt;/span&gt; (SAGE Publications)
+
This is from a detail page on Amazon.com for a book.
</pre>
 
Also, many examples where books presented in table format with Title as cell header, or presented "Title: "
 
  
=== Book Series Name: ===
+
[[citation-examples-markup#Amazon.com_citation_info|Amazon's Original Markup]]
<pre>
 
&lt;span id="serieslbl" class="productsubtitle"&gt;&lt;a href="..."&gt;Teaching With Documents Series&lt;/a&gt;&lt;/span&gt;
 
(ABC-CLIO)
 
</pre>
 
  
=== Sub-title: ===
+
* title
<pre>
+
* author
&lt;span id="subtitle" class="productsubtitle"&gt;&lt;/span&gt;
+
* series title
(ABC-CLIO)
+
* page
  
 +
=== CiteSeer database search results ===
  
&lt;div class="sub_title"&gt;[Four Volumes]&lt;/div&gt;
+
The [http://citeseer.ist.psu.edu CiteSeer] database has been another heavily used Computer Science online resource, and it has minimal markup:
(Greenwood, homepage)
+
#[[citation-examples-markup#CiteSeer_database_search_results|CiteSeer's Original Markup]]
 +
#[[citation-examples#CiteSeer|CiteSeer's Original Example 2]]
  
&lt;span id="lblSubTitle" class="book_subline"&gt;[Four Volumes]&lt;/span&gt;
+
* author
(Greenwood, product page)
+
* title
 +
* journal
 +
* pages
 +
* publication date
 +
* URL
 +
* Accessed On
  
 +
=== CiteULike.org citation listing ===
  
&lt;div class="subTitle"&gt; The American Revolution, 1763-1789 &lt;/div&gt;
+
[http://www.citeulike.org/ CiteULike]
(OUP)
 
</pre>
 
  
=== Author: ===
+
[[citation-examples-markup#CiteULike.org_citation_listing|CiteULike's Original Markup]]
<pre>
 
&lt;span id="credit" class="productauthor"&gt;&lt;/span&gt;
 
(ABC-CLIO)
 
  
 +
* title
 +
* author
 +
* subjects
 +
* image
 +
* Volume
 +
* Number
 +
* publication date
 +
* page
  
&lt;div class="author"&gt;William M. Clements&lt;/div&gt;
+
Links to services with the following IDs embedded in the link
(Greenwood)
+
* Z3988
 +
* DOI
 +
* Pubmed
 +
* Hubmed
  
 +
=== CiteProc XHTML Output ===
 +
[[citation-examples-markup#CiteProc_XHTML_Output|CiteProc Original Markup]]
  
&lt;td width="35%"&gt;&lt;font id="title_catalogue_title_font"&gt;Authors&lt;/font&gt;&lt;/td&gt;
+
The XHTML output for CiteProc[http://xbiblio.sourceforge.net/citeproc/] wasn't designed per se as a microformat, but is probably not a bad place to start. It is designed to handle a wide range of content. Here is the APA output:
&lt;td width="65%"&gt;&lt;font id="text"&gt;Andrew Tan &amp; Kumar Ramakrishna (eds)&lt;/font&gt;&lt;/td&gt;
 
(Marshall Cavendish)
 
  
 +
* refID (HTML @ID)
 +
* creator
 +
* role (to indicate editors and translators)
 +
* date
 +
* title
 +
* volume
 +
* issue
 +
* page
 +
* issue
 +
* container (a book serves as container for a chapter)
 +
* type (book, newspaper, proceedings)
 +
* edition
 +
* publisher
 +
* place
 +
* location (for urls and physical locations)
 +
* access date (for online items)
  
&lt;div class="byline"&gt; Robert Middlekauff &lt;/div&gt;
+
=== Google Cache ===
(OUP)
+
[http://microformats.org/wiki?title=citation-examples-markup&action=submit#Google Original Markup]
</pre>
+
* url
 +
* retrieved date
  
=== Publication Date: ===
+
=== Greenwood Press featured book ===
<pre>
+
[http://www.greenwood.com/ greenwood press home page]
&lt;span id="pubdate" class="productdetailbody"&gt;11/2001&lt;/span&gt;
+
[http://microformats.org/wiki/citation-examples-markup#Greenwood_Press_home_page.C2.A0.28http:.2F.2Fwww.greenwood.com.2F.29_featured_book Original Markup]
(ABC-CLIO -- see table structure)
+
* title
 +
* subtitle
 +
* author
 +
* ISBN
 +
* Price
 +
* Description
  
 +
=== Greenwood Press product detail page ===
 +
[http://www.greenwood.com/catalog/GR2847.aspx Product detail page]
 +
[http://microformats.org/wiki/citation-examples-markup#Greenwood_Press_Product_detail_page.C2.A0.28http:.2F.2Fwww.greenwood.com.2Fcatalog.2FGR2847.aspx.29 Original Markup]
  
&lt;div id="pnlPubDate"&gt; &lt;span class="book_options"&gt;Publication Date:&lt;/span&gt; &lt;span id="lblPubDate"&gt;12/30/2005&lt;/span&gt; &lt;/div&gt;
+
* Title
(Greenwood, detail page)
+
* subtitle
 +
* authors
 +
* AuthorsNote
 +
* BookCode (internal code system)
 +
* ISBN
 +
* Page
 +
* Publisher
 +
* Publication Date
 +
* Price
 +
* Availability
 +
* MediaType
 +
* categories
 +
* LC Card Number
 +
* LCC Class
 +
* Dewey Class
  
 +
=== IEEE IEEExplore Search Results Markup ===
 +
[http://microformats.org/wiki/citation-examples-markup#IEEE_IEEExplore_Search_Results_Markup Original Markup]
  
&lt;span class="publicationDate"&gt; Feb 2005 &lt;/span&gt;
+
* title
(OUP)
+
* authors
 +
* journal
 +
* issue
 +
* volume
 +
* issue
 +
* pubdate
 +
* page
 +
* Digital Object Identifier (DOI)
 +
* summary
  
  
&lt;li&gt;Published/Released:&lt;strong&gt; March 1973&lt;/strong&gt;&lt;/li&gt;
+
=== Marshall Cavendish product page===
(Thomson Gale)
+
[http://www.marshallcavendish.com/marshallcavendish/academic/redirector.xml?url=/marshallcavendish/academic/catalogue/books/regionalism_n_regional_security/9812102108.xml product page]
</pre>
+
[http://microformats.org/wiki/citation-examples-markup#Marshall_Cavendish_product_page.C2.A0.28http:.2F.2Fwww.marshallcavendish.com.2Fmarshallcavendish.2Facademic.2Fredirector.xml.3Furl.3D.2Fmarshallcavendish.2Facademic.2Fcatalogue.2Fbooks.2Fregionalism_n_regional_security.2F9812102108.xml.29 Original Markup]
  
=== Volumes: ===
+
* ISBN
<pre>
+
* Series
&lt;td width="110" class="productdetailhead"&gt;&lt;span id="volumeslabel" class="productdetailhead"&gt;Volumes&lt;/span&gt;&lt;/td&gt;
+
* Title
&lt;td width="180" class="productdetailbody"&gt;&lt;span id="volumes" class="productdetailbody"&gt;1&lt;/span&gt;&lt;/td&gt;
+
* publisher
(ABC-CLIO)
+
* Specifications (dimentions/weight)
</pre>
+
* Authors
 +
* Target Audience
 +
* Price
 +
* description
  
=== ISBN: ===
+
=== Ning ===
<pre>
+
[http://microformats.org/wiki?title=citation-examples-markup&action=submit#Ning.com Original Example]
&lt;td class="productdetailhead" width="88"&gt;&lt;span id="ISBNLabel"&gt;ISBN&lt;/span&gt;&lt;/td&gt;
+
* title
&lt;td class="productdetailbody"&gt;1-57607-785-3&lt;/td&gt;
+
* publications date
(ABC-CLIO)
+
* retrieved on
  
 +
=== Oxford University Press (USA) home page ===
 +
[http://www.us.oup.com/us/?view=usa homepage]
 +
[http://microformats.org/wiki/citation-examples-markup#Oxford_University_Press_.28USA.29_homepage.C2.A0.28http:.2F.2Fwww.us.oup.com.2Fus.2F.3Fview.3Dusa.29 Original Markup]
  
&lt;div class="isbn"&gt;0-313-32847-1&lt;/div&gt;
+
* title
(Greenwood, homepage)
+
* subTitle
 +
* edition
 +
* byline
 +
* ISBN
 +
* format - hardback
 +
* publication Date
 +
* price
 +
* description
 +
* related
  
&lt;div id="pnlIsbn"&gt; &lt;span class="book_options"&gt;ISBN:&lt;/span&gt; &lt;span id="lblIsbn"&gt;0-313-32847-1&lt;/span&gt; &lt;/div&gt;
+
=== Oxford University Press (USA) product detail page ===
(Greenwood, product page)
+
[http://www.us.oup.com/us/catalog/general/subject/HistoryAmerican/ColonialRevolutionary/?view=usa&amp;ci=0195162471#Product_Details Product page]
 +
[http://microformats.org/wiki/citation-examples-markup#Oxford_University_Press_.28USA.29_Product_page.C2.A0.28http:.2F.2Fwww.us.oup.com.2Fus.2Fcatalog.2Fgeneral.2Fsubject.2FHistoryAmerican.2FColonialRevolutionary.2F.3Fview.3Dusa.26ci.3D0195162471.23Product_Details.29 Original Markup]
  
 +
* title
 +
* subTitle
 +
* edition
 +
* byline
 +
* image
 +
* isbnNumber
 +
* format - hardback
 +
* pages
 +
* publication Date
 +
* availability
 +
* price
  
&lt;td width="35%"&gt;&lt;font id="title_catalogue_title_font"&gt;ISBN Number&lt;/font&gt;&lt;/td&gt;
+
=== Thomson Gale product detail page ===
&lt;td width="65%"&gt;&lt;font id="text"&gt;9812102108&lt;/font&gt;&lt;/td&gt;
+
[http://microformats.org/wiki/citation-examples-markup#Thomson_Gale_product_detail_page Original Markup]
(Marshall Cavendish)
 
  
 +
* title
 +
* excerp
 +
* Volume
 +
* Publisher
 +
* description
 +
* Published date
 +
* ISBN
 +
* Product number (internal code system)
 +
* Pages
 +
* Shipping Weight
 +
* price
  
&lt;span class="isbnNumber"&gt;0195162471&lt;/span&gt;
+
=== RFC vCard Example ===
(OUP)
+
[http://microformats.org/wiki/citation-examples-markup#RFC_vCard_Example Original Markup]
  
 +
* refID (HTML @ID)
 +
* title
 +
* publication
 +
* title
 +
* Journal
 +
* Volume
 +
* Issue
 +
* page
 +
* pubdate
 +
* RFC ID
  
&lt;li&gt;ISBN: &lt;strong&gt;0-8103-0100-8&lt;/strong&gt;&lt;/li&gt;
+
=== University of Virginia ===
(Thomson Gale)
+
[http://microformats.org/wiki?title=citation-examples-markup&action=submit#University_of_Virginia Original Markup]
</pre>
+
* title
 +
* publication date
 +
* retrived on
 +
* location
 +
* organization
  
=== Book Edition: ===
+
=== W3C XHTML Spec Example ===
<pre>
+
[http://microformats.org/wiki/citation-examples-markup#W3C_XHTML_Spec_Example Original Markup]
&lt;div class="edition"&gt; Revised and Expanded Edition &lt;/div&gt;
 
(OUP)
 
</pre>
 
Added by [[User:Tim White|Tim]]
 
  
== RFC vCard Example ==
+
* refID (HTML @ID)
<pre><nowiki>
+
* URL
9.  References
+
* title
 +
* subtitle
 +
* part (1 of X)
 +
* journal
 +
* authors
 +
* pubdate
 +
* language
 +
* ISO/IEC ID
 +
* RFC ID
  
  [ISO 8601]    ISO 8601:1988 - Data elements and interchange formats -
+
[http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml1/#refs XHTML1.0 Spec references]
                Information interchange - Representation of dates and
 
                times - The International Organization for
 
                Standardization, June, 1988.
 
  
  [ISO 8601 TC] ISO 8601, Technical Corrigendum 1 - Data elements and
+
=== PubMed Medical Journal Example ===
                interchange formats - Information interchange -
+
[http://microformats.org/wiki/citation-examples-markup#PubMed_Medical_Journal_Example Original Markup]
                Representation of dates and times - The International
 
                Organization for Standardization, May, 1991.
 
  
  [ISO 9070]    ISO 9070, Information Processing - SGML support
+
* abstract
                facilities - Registration Procedures for Public Text
+
* title
                Owner Identifiers, April, 1991.
+
* publisher
 +
* journal
 +
* date of publication
 +
* volume
 +
* issue
 +
* pages
 +
* language
 +
* Review (BOOLEAN YES/NO)
 +
* PubMedID
  
  [CCITT E.163] Recommendation E.163 - Numbering Plan for The
+
=== BibDesk Default Template ===
                International Telephone Service, CCITT Blue Book,
+
[[citation-examples-markup#BibDesk_default_HTML_export_example|Original Markup]]
                Fascicle II.2, pp.  128-134, November, 1988.
 
  
  [CCITT X.121] Recommendation X.121 - International Numbering Plan for
+
This is a pretty simplistic template for a very general app, but it seems to be OK for most BD users.  
                Public Data Networks, CCITT Blue Book, Fascicle VIII.3,
 
                pp. 317-332, November, 1988.
 
  
  [CCITT X.520] Recommendation X.520 - The Directory - Selected
+
* Title
                Attribute Types, November 1988.
+
* Author
 +
* Journal
 +
* Volume
 +
* Pages
 +
* Date
 +
* Url
 +
* Abstract
  
  [CCITT X.521] Recommendation X.521 - The Directory - Selected Object
+
=== Wikipedia ===
                Classes, November 1988.
+
[http://wikipedia.org Wikipedia] makes extensive use of bibliographic citations, in particular to point readers to further information sources. There are differing formats depending on Wikipedia's language.
  
  [MIME-DIR]    Howes, T., Smith, M., and F. Dawson, "A MIME Content-
+
Note that Wikipedia values are often links to other pages on Wikipedia (used elsewhere, those URLs might be more canonical, such as to an author or publisher's website).
                Type for Directory Information", RFC 2425, September
 
                1998.
 
  
  [RFC 1738]    Berners-Lee, T., Masinter, L., and M. McCahill,
+
==== English Wikipedia ====
                "Uniform Resource Locators (URL)", RFC 1738, December
+
The kinds of citations used on the site run the full gamut. Here are breakdowns of four categories previously mentioned:
                1994.
 
  
  [RFC 1766]   Alvestrand, H., "Tags for the Identification of
+
===== Original Markup =====
                Languages", RFC 1766, March 1995.
+
[http://microformats.org/wiki?title=citation-examples-markup&action=submit#Wikipedia Original Markup]
 +
* id
 +
* title
 +
* url
 +
* Retrieved/Accessed On
 +
* Publication Date
 +
* Journal
  
  [RFC 1872]    Levinson, E., "The MIME Multipart/Related Content-
+
===== Book =====
                type", RFC 1872, December 1995.
+
[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard_feynman#_note-8 Example]
 +
[http://microformats.org/wiki/citation-examples-markup#Wikipedia_Book Example Markup]
  
  [RFC 2045]    Freed, N., and N. Borenstein, "Multipurpose Internet
+
* title
                Mail Extensions (MIME) - Part One: Format of Internet
+
* author
                Message Bodies", RFC 2045, November 1996.
+
* publisher
 +
* year
 +
* ISBN
 +
* url (indirectly via special wikipedia ISBN page)
  
  [RFC 2046]    Freed, N., and N. Borenstein, "Multipurpose Internet
+
===== Book Infobox =====
                Mail Extensions (MIME) - Part Two: Media Types", RFC
 
                2046, November 1996.
 
  
  [RFC 2047]    Moore, K., "Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions
+
The [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Template:Infobox_Book Book Infobox template] from wikipedia shows a separate schema that is being used for many book pages on wikipedia to mark up a summary box about the book.  
                (MIME) - Part Three: Message Header Extensions for
 
                Non-ASCII Text", RFC 2047, November 1996.
 
  
  [RFC 2048]   Freed, N., Klensin, J., and J. Postel, "Multipurpose
+
See also [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Category:Book_templates Other Wikipedia book templates] & [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Category:Citation_templates Wikipedia citation templates].
                Internet Mail Extensions (MIME) - Part Four:
 
                Registration Procedures", RFC 2048, January 1997.
 
  
   [RFC 2119]   Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
+
* name 
                Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.
+
* title_orig   
 +
* translator   
 +
* image         
 +
* image_caption 
 +
* author       
 +
* illustrator    
 +
* cover_artist 
 +
* country       
 +
* language     
 +
* series       
 +
* subject       
 +
* genre         
 +
* publisher     
 +
* release_date 
 +
* english_release_date
 +
* media_type   
 +
* pages         
 +
* isbn         
 +
* preceded_by    
 +
* followed_by   
  
  [RFC 2234]    Crocker, D., and P. Overell, "Augmented BNF for Syntax
 
                Specifications: ABNF", RFC 2234, November 1997.
 
  
  [UNICODE]    "The Unicode Standard - Version 2.0", The Unicode
 
                Consortium, July 1996.
 
  
  [VCARD]      Internet Mail Consortium, "vCard - The Electronic
+
===== Journal Articles =====
                Business Card Version 2.1",
+
See also:[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Template:Infobox_Journal Wikipedia infobox for journals]
                http://www.imc.org/pdi/vcard-21.txt, September 18,
 
                1996.
 
</nowiki></pre>
 
[http://www.faqs.org/rfcs/rfc2426.html vCard RFC]
 
  
== W3C XHTML Spec Example ==
+
[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/DNA#Citations Example]
<pre><nowiki>
+
[http://microformats.org/wiki/citation-examples-markup#Wikipedia_Journal_Article Example Markup]
<h1><a name="refs" id="refs">E.</a> References</h1>
 
  
<p><strong>This appendix is informative.</strong></p>
+
* author (truncated list)
 +
* year
 +
* title
 +
* journal title
 +
* journal number
 +
* page range
 +
* [http://doi.org DOI]
  
<dl>
+
===== Court cases =====
<dt><a name="ref-css2" id="ref-css2"><strong>[CSS2]</strong></a></dt>
+
[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_leading_legal_cases_in_copyright_law Example]
 +
[http://microformats.org/wiki/citation-examples-markup#Wikipedia_Court_Case Example Markup]
  
<dd>"<cite><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/1998/REC-CSS2-19980512">Cascading Style Sheets, level 2 (CSS2) Specification</a></cite>", B. Bos, H. W. Lie, C. Lilley, I. Jacobs, 12 May 1998.<br />
+
* title
<a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/REC-CSS2">Latest version</a> available at: http://www.w3.org/TR/REC-CSS2</dd>
+
* case number
 +
** ''note that legal standards for referring to cases include some inscrutable abbreviations that are probably more detailed than just "case number"''
 +
* court name
 +
* year
 +
* description/abstract
  
<dt><a name="ref-dom" id="ref-dom"><strong>[DOM]</strong></a></dt>
+
===== U.S. Law =====
 +
[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Foreign_Intelligence_Surveillance_Act#endnote_FISA Example]
 +
[http://microformats.org/wiki/citation-examples-markup#Wikipedia_US_Law Example Markup]
  
<dd>"<cite><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/1998/REC-DOM-Level-1-19981001">Document Object Model (DOM) Level 1 Specification</a></cite>", Lauren Wood <em lang="lt" xml:lang="lt">et al.</em>, 1 October
+
* title (title number, for example "50" in "50 U.S.C. chapter 36."
1998.<br />
+
* chapter title (name, for example "Foreign Intelligence Surveillance" )
<a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/REC-DOM-Level-1">Latest version</a> available at: http://www.w3.org/TR/REC-DOM-Level-1</dd>
+
* chapter number
 +
* section, paragraph, subparagraph numbers (optionally)
  
<dt><a name="ref-dom2" id="ref-dom2"><strong>[DOM2]</strong></a></dt>
+
===== Conference presentations =====
 +
[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Paul_R._Pillar#Conference_presentation_by_Pillar Example]
 +
[http://microformats.org/wiki/citation-examples-markup#Wikipedia_Conference_Presentation Example Markup]
  
<dd>"<cite><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2000/REC-DOM-Level-2-Core-20001113">Document Object Model (DOM) Level 2 Core Specification</a></cite>", A. Le&#160;Hors, <em lang="lt" xml:lang="lt">et
+
* title
al.</em>, 13 November 2000.<br />
+
* location
<a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/DOM-Level-2-Core">Latest version</a> available at: http://www.w3.org/TR/DOM-Level-2-Core</dd>
+
* date
 +
* author (implied - the page is about this person)
  
<dt><a name="ref-html4" id="ref-html4"><strong>[HTML]</strong></a></dt>
 
  
<dd>"<cite><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/1999/REC-html401-19991224">HTML 4.01 Specification</a></cite>", D. Raggett, A. Le&#160;Hors, I. Jacobs, 24 December 1999.<br />
+
===== Historical Sources =====
<a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/html401">Latest version</a> available at: http://www.w3.org/TR/html401</dd>
+
[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/American_Civil_War#Primary_sources Example]
 +
[http://microformats.org/wiki/citation-examples-markup#Wikipedia_Primary_Historical_Source Example Markup]
  
<dt><a name="ref-posix.1" id="ref-posix.1"><strong>[POSIX.1]</strong></a></dt>
+
* source / location
 +
* title
 +
* publisher
 +
* year
 +
* description
 +
* url
  
<dd>"<cite>ISO/IEC 9945-1:1990 Information Technology - Portable Operating System Interface (POSIX) - Part 1: System Application Program Interface (API) [C Language]</cite>", Institute of Electrical
+
===== U.S. Patent =====
and Electronics Engineers, Inc, 1990.</dd>
+
[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_software_patents Example]
 +
[http://microformats.org/wiki/citation-examples-markup#Wikipedia_U.S._Patent Example Markup]
  
<dt><a id="ref-rfc2045" name="ref-rfc2045"><strong>[RFC2045]</strong></a></dt>
+
* number
  
<dd>"<cite><a href="http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc2045.txt">Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions (MIME) Part One: Format of Internet Message Bodies</a></cite>", N. Freed and N. Borenstein, November
+
==== German Wikipedia ====
1996. Note that this RFC obsoletes RFC1521, RFC1522, and RFC1590.</dd>
+
* [http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:Literatur citing styles]
  
<dt><a name="ref-rfc2046" id="ref-rfc2046"><strong>[RFC2046]</strong></a></dt>
+
=== EPrints.org ===
  
<dd>"<cite><a href="http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc2046.txt">RFC2046: Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions (MIME) Part Two: Media Types</a></cite>", N. Freed and N. Borenstein, November 1996.<br />
+
[http://eprints.ecs.soton.ac.uk/12070/ example]
Available at <a href="http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc2046.txt">http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc2046.txt</a>. Note that this RFC obsoletes RFC1521, RFC1522, and RFC1590.</dd>
+
[http://microformats.org/wiki/citation-examples-markup#EPrints.org_generated_output example markup]
  
<dt><a name="ref-rfc2119" id="ref-rfc2119"><strong>[RFC2119]</strong></a></dt>
+
Based on [http://dublincore.org/documents/dcq-html/ Expressing Dublin Core in HTML/XHTML meta and link elements] and [http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc2731.txt rfc2731], Eprints.org uses the following Dublin Core terms in meta tags in the HTML HEAD of each paper's page:
  
<dd>"<cite><a href="http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc2119.txt">RFC2119: Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate Requirement Levels</a></cite>", S. Bradner, March 1997.<br />
+
* title
Available at: http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc2119.txt</dd>
+
* creator (author)
 +
* description (abstract)
 +
* date
 +
* type
 +
* identifier (a url)
 +
* format
 +
** a strange syntax for the meta content:"pdf http://eprints.ecs.soton.ac.uk/12070/01/Alani-final.pdf"" for the format term...
 +
* fulltext
 +
** this is in a rel-alternate link element. The class is 'fulltext', and the href is the same link as in format, only a valid URL this time.
  
<dt><a name="ref-rfc2376" id="ref-rfc2376"><strong>[RFC2376]</strong></a></dt>
+
In the body of the page, they use the following classes, now no longer DC terms:
 +
*  title
 +
* authors (a flat list with abbreviated names)
 +
* year
 +
* conference
 +
* conference location
  
<dd>"<cite><a href="http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc2376.txt">RFC2376: XML Media Types</a></cite>", E. Whitehead, M. Murata, July 1998.<br />
+
=== Wolfram Mathworld ===
This document is obsoleted by [<a href="#ref-rfc3023">RFC3023</a>].<br />
 
Available at: http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc2376.txt</dd>
 
  
<dt><a name="ref-rfc2396" id="ref-rfc2396"><strong>[RFC2396]</strong></a></dt>
+
[http://mathworld.wolfram.com/Quasi-MonteCarloMethod.html example]
 +
[http://microformats.org/wiki/citation-examples-markup#Wolfram_Mathworld example markup]
  
<dd>"<cite><a href="http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc2396.txt">RFC2396: Uniform Resource Identifiers (URI): Generic Syntax</a></cite>", T. Berners-Lee, R. Fielding, L. Masinter, August 1998.<br />
+
A book. First citation from the page on "Quasi-Monte Carlo Method". Has very little markup.
This document updates RFC1738 and RFC1808.<br />
 
Available at: http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc2396.txt</dd>
 
  
<dt><a name="ref-rfc2854" id="ref-rfc2854"><strong>[RFC2854]</strong></a></dt>
+
* authors
 +
* title
 +
* publisher (name and location)
 +
* date (just year)
  
<dd>"<cite><a href="http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc2854.txt">RFC2854: The text/html Media Type</a></cite>", D. Conolly, L. Masinter, June 2000.<br />
+
===LibraryThing===
Available at: http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc2854.txt</dd>
+
*[http://www.librarything.com/] (on-line book cataloguing and reviews
 +
**e.g. [http://www.librarything.com/catalog.php?view=trealawboy]
  
<dt><a name="ref-rfc3023" id="ref-rfc3023"><strong>[RFC3023]</strong></a></dt>
+
=== Self-Citation Example ===
 +
[http://cbio.mskcc.org/~hoffmann/lifecycles/olv/index.html One example] of an article that includes a statement "please cite as" (a self-description):
 +
 +
* title
 +
* author
 +
* periodical (journal) title
 +
* volume
 +
* issue
 +
* pages
 +
* year
  
<dd>"<cite><a href="http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc3023.txt">RFC3023: XML Media Types</a></cite>", M. Murata, S. St.Laurent, D. Kohn, January 2001.<br />
+
=== Citation of an Online Resource ===
This document obsoletes [<a href="#ref-rfc2376">RFC2376</a>].<br />
+
[http://microformats.org/wiki/citation-examples-markup#Citation_of_an_Online_Resource example markup]
Available at: http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc3023.txt</dd>
 
  
<dt><a id="ref-rfc3066" name="ref-rfc3066"><strong>[RFC3066]</strong></a></dt>
+
At University of Michigan's [http://www.crlt.umich.edu/publinks/facment_biblio.html  Center for Research on Learning and Teaching] you see citations like this:
  
<dd>"<a href="http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc3066.txt">Tags for the Identification of Languages</a>", H. Alvestrand, January 2001.<br />
+
Chief Academic Officers of the Big 12 Universities (2000). Big 12 Faculty Fellowship Program. Retrieved December 20, 2000 from the World Wide Wed: http://www.k-state.edu/provost/academic/big12/big12guide.htm.
Available at: http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc3066.txt</dd>
 
  
<dt><a id="ref-rfc3236" name="ref-rfc3236"><strong>[RFC3236]</strong></a></dt>
+
* title
 +
* publication year
 +
* department/author
 +
* retrieval date
 +
* URL
  
<dd>"<a href="http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc3236.txt">The 'application/xhtml+xml' Media Type</a>", M. Baker, P. Stark, January 2002.<br />
 
Available at: http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc3236.txt</dd>
 
  
<dt><a id="ref-xhtml-mathml" name="ref-xhtml-mathml"><strong>[XHTML+MathML]</strong></a></dt>
+
[http://www.firstmonday.org/issues/issue12_2/tulloch/index.html "Many, Many Maps," ''First Monday''] contains citations to online resources like this:
  
<dd><cite>"<a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/MathML2/dtd/xhtml-math11-f.dtd">XHTML plus Math 1.1 <abbr title="Document Type Definition">DTD</abbr></a></cite>", "A.2 MathML as a DTD Module", Mathematical
+
E.S. Raymond, 2000. “The Cathedral and the Bazaar,” version 3.0, at http://www.catb.org/~esr/writings/cathedral-bazaar/cathedral-bazaar, accessed 18 October 2006.
Markup Language (MathML) Version 2.0. Available at: http://www.w3.org/TR/MathML2/dtd/xhtml-math11-f.dtd</dd>
 
  
<dt><a id="ref-xhtmlmime" name="ref-xhtmlmime"><strong>[XHTMLMIME]</strong></a></dt>
+
* author
 +
* publication year
 +
* web page title
 +
* URL
 +
* accessed date
  
<dd>"<cite><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2002/NOTE-xhtml-media-types-20020801">XHTML Media Types</a></cite>", Masayasu Ishikawa, 1 August 2002.<br />
 
<a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml-media-types">Latest version</a> available at: http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml-media-types</dd>
 
  
<dt><a id="ref-xhtmlmod" name="ref-xhtmlmod"><strong>[XHTMLMOD]</strong></a></dt>
+
[http://chnm.gmu.edu/resources/essays/d/44 "The Role of Technology in World History Teaching" by T. Mills Kelly] uses the following citation format for online resources:
  
<dd>"<cite><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2001/REC-xhtml-modularization-20010410">Modularization of XHTML</a></cite>", M. Altheim et al., 10 April 2001.<br />
+
''Hitler Historical Museum'', http://www.hitler.org/. Accessed March 21, 2006.
<a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml-modularization">Latest version</a> available at: http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml-modularization</dd>
 
  
<dt><a name="ref-xml" id="ref-xml"><strong>[XML]</strong></a></dt>
+
* title
 +
* URL
 +
* accessed date
  
<dd>"<a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2000/REC-xml-20001006">Extensible Markup Language (XML) 1.0 Specification (Second Edition)</a>", T. Bray, J. Paoli, C. M. Sperberg-McQueen, E. Maler, 6 October
+
=== OCLC WorldCat Online ===
2000.<br />
 
<a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/REC-xml">Latest version</a> available at: http://www.w3.org/TR/REC-xml</dd>
 
  
<dt><a name="ref-xmlns" id="ref-xmlns"><strong>[XMLNS]</strong></a></dt>
+
==== Book ====
 +
[http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/41238513 example] [http://microformats.org/wiki/citation-examples-markup#Book example-makrup]
  
<dd>"<a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/1999/REC-xml-names-19990114">Namespaces in XML</a>", T. Bray, D. Hollander, A. Layman, 14 January 1999.<br />
+
* title
XML namespaces provide a simple method for qualifying names used in XML documents by associating them with namespaces identified by URI.<br />
+
* type (book)
<a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/REC-xml-names">Latest version</a> available at: http://www.w3.org/TR/REC-xml-names</dd>
+
* publisher name
 +
* publisher location
 +
* copyright date
 +
* isbn
 +
* oclc number
 +
* subjects
 +
* author
 +
* z39.88 (COinS)
  
<dt><a name="ref-xmlc14n" id="ref-xmlc14n"><strong>[XMLC14N]</strong></a></dt>
+
==== Journal ====
 +
[http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/4538259 example]
 +
[http://microformats.org/wiki/citation-examples-markup#Journal example-makrup]
  
<dd>"<a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2001/REC-xml-c14n-20010315">Canonical XML Version 1.0</a>", J. Boyer, 15 March 2001.<br />
+
* title
This document describes a method for generating a physical representation, the canonical form, of an XML document.<br />
+
* type (journal)
<a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/xml-c14n">Latest version</a> available at: http://www.w3.org/TR/xml-c14n</dd>
+
* publisher
</dl>
+
* issn
</nowiki></pre>
+
* oclc number
[http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml1/#refs XHTML1.0 Spec references]
+
* subjects
 +
* z39.88 (COinS)
 +
 
 +
====West Midland Bird Club====
 +
Uses OpenCOinS
 +
* [http://www.westmidlandbirdclub.com/biblio/warwks.htm Bibliography page]
 +
* [http://www.westmidlandbirdclub.com/archive/reports1970s.htm Annual Reports]
 +
* [http://www.westmidlandbirdclub.com/biblio/birdnotes/23-5-172.htm 'Bird Notes' article reproduction]
 +
* [http://www.westmidlandbirdclub.com/biblio/bb/73-478.htm 'British Birds' article reproduction]
 +
* [http://www.westmidlandbirdclub.com/biblio/bb/40-184.htm 'British Birds' article reproduction with additional citation]
 +
*[http://www.westmidlandbirdclub.com/biblio/bb/index.htm List of 'British Birds' articles]
 +
 
 +
Features include:
 +
*title
 +
*author
 +
*date
 +
*price (historic, at time of publication)
 +
*format
 +
*publisher
 +
*number of pages
 +
*ISBN/ ISSN
 +
*product dimensions
 +
*page numbers of article
 +
*image(s)
 +
 
 +
====Amazon====
 +
Product listings, e.g.
 +
[http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/1590596145/ref=pd_qpt_gw_1/026-5782158-8338825]
 +
*title
 +
*author
 +
*price
 +
*format
 +
*publisher
 +
*number of pages
 +
*language
 +
*ISBN
 +
*product dimensions
 +
*shipping weighta
 +
*average customer review
 +
*image
 +
*Amazon.com Sales Rank
 +
 
 +
====ABE====
 +
Product listings, e.g. [http://www.abebooks.com/servlet/BookDetailsPL?bi=637112345&searchurl=sts%3Dt%26an%3Dmabbett%26y%3D0%26x%3D0]
 +
*title
 +
*author
 +
*ISBN
 +
*publisher
 +
*publication date
 +
*country
 +
*edition
 +
*condition
 +
*whether signed
 +
*format/binding
 +
*number of pages
 +
*bookseller
 +
*inventory number
 +
*price
 +
*shipping costs
 +
*quantity
 +
 
 +
===Open URL===
 +
 
 +
* See [[OpenURL_1.0_%28Z39.88%29|OpenURL]]
 +
 
 +
===Upcoming===
 +
====Open Library====
 +
*[http://www.openlibrary.org/ Open Library]
 +
**<blockquote>There are data fields for every possible bit of information that could exist about each published work.</blockquote> - [http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/magazine/6924022.stm BBC news story 2007-07-31]
 +
 
 +
== External Lists of Citation Examples ==
 +
* http://www.tjameswhite.com/citation-examples.htm
 +
 
 +
== Implied schema ==
 +
=== List of all properties ===
 +
This are a summation of all the properties in the examples, I have tried to logically group them together.
 +
 
 +
* title
 +
* subtitle
 +
* author
 +
* editor
 +
* translator
 +
* image
 +
* date (issued, copyrighted, accessed)
 +
* language
 +
* description/Summary/abstract
 +
* excerpt
 +
* index terms
 +
* categories (keywords, tags, labels, etc.)
 +
 
 +
RELATIONS
 +
* container (publication; periodicals, books, etc.)
 +
* collection (series and so forth)
 +
* event (conference, etc.)
 +
* original (for republished material)
 +
 
 +
LOCATION INFORMATION
 +
* pages
 +
* volume
 +
* series title
 +
* Series
 +
* edition
 +
* issue
 +
* publication
 +
* journal
 +
* part (1 of X)
  
== CiteProc XHTML Output ==
+
PHYSICAL ATTRIBUTES
 +
* Specifications (dimentions/weight)
 +
* Format/type (book, newspaper, proceedings)
  
The XHTML output for CiteProc[http://xbiblio.sourceforge.net/citeproc.html] wasn't designed per se as a microformat, but is probably not a bad place to start. It is desgined to handle a wide range of content. Here is the APA output:
+
IDENTIFIERS
 +
* ISBN
 +
* LC Card Number
 +
* LCC Class
 +
* Dewey Class
 +
* URL
 +
* RFC ID
 +
* ISO/IEC ID
 +
* DOI
 +
* PubMedID
  
<pre><nowiki>
+
PUBLISHER
<div id="bibliography">
+
* publisher
  
  <h3>References</h3>
 
  
  <p id="Brenner2000a" class="bibref">
+
These are sort of left overs, the are not really about citations, but more about commerce or other things. If they are important we can move them to the above list.
    <span class="creator">Brenner, N.</span>
+
* refID (HTML @ID)
    <span class="date"> (<span class="year">2000</span>) </span>
+
* Reviewed (BOOLEAN YES/NO)
    <span class="title">The Urban Question as a Scale Question: Reflections
+
* Availability
    on Henri Lefebre, Urban Theory and the Politics of Scale, </span>
+
* Price
    <span class="container">
+
* Shipping Weight
      <span class="title" style="font-style: italic">International Journal of
+
* related
        Urban and Regional Research, </span>
+
* Product number (internal system code)
      <span class="volume">24</span>
+
* BookCode (internal system code)
      <span class="issue">(2)</span>
+
* AuthorsNote
      <span class="locator">, pp. 361–78</span>
+
* Additional Information
      </span>.
+
* Target Audience
    </p>
 
  
  <p id="NW2000-0207" class="bibref">
+
=== Analysis of Examples ===
    <span class="creator">Newsweek</span>
+
With exception of just a few properties, all of the above appeared in atleast two different examples. The following properties were very common in most the example formats:
    <span class="date">
+
* title
      (<span class="year">2000a</span>
+
* subtitle
      <span class="month">, February</span>
+
* author
      <span class="day"> 7</span>)
+
* publication date
    </span>
+
* description
    <span class="title">The Grandmas Pay a Visit, </span>
+
* pages
    <span class="container">
+
* ISBN
      <span class="volume">135</span>
+
* publisher
      <span class="issue">(6)</span>
 
      <span class="locator">, pp. 45</span>
 
    </span>.
 
  </p>
 
  
  <p id="Veer1996a" class="bibref">
+
== Styles ==
    <span class="creator">van der Veer, P.</span>
+
'''This section should be moved and incorporated into [[citation-formats]]'''.
    <span class="date"><span class="year"> (1996) </span></span>
 
    <span class="title">Riots and Rituals: The Construction of Violence
 
      and Public Space in Hindu Nationalism</span>
 
    <span class="container">, In Brass, P.<span class="role"> (Ed.)</span>.
 
      <span class="title" style="font-style: italic">Riots and Pogroms.</span>
 
      <span class="origin"><span class="place">New York</span>
 
      <span class="publisher">: NYU Press</span></span>
 
      <span class="locator">, pp. 154–76</span>
 
    </span>.
 
  </p>
 
</div>
 
</nowiki></pre>
 
  
= Styles =
 
 
This does NOT define a format, but instead shows how the format should be displayed. This is something out of the direct scope of this project. CSS styles will handle the look-and-feel of the text, and the author can put it in any order they choose. These links are mentioned for two reasons, one is informative, the other is so we know at least meet the minimum properties that are used in the styles.
 
This does NOT define a format, but instead shows how the format should be displayed. This is something out of the direct scope of this project. CSS styles will handle the look-and-feel of the text, and the author can put it in any order they choose. These links are mentioned for two reasons, one is informative, the other is so we know at least meet the minimum properties that are used in the styles.
  
 
* [http://www.liu.edu/cwis/cwp/library/workshop/citmla.htm MLA Style]
 
* [http://www.liu.edu/cwis/cwp/library/workshop/citmla.htm MLA Style]
 
* [http://www.bu.edu/library/guides/citation.html Chicago, MLA, and APA styles]
 
* [http://www.bu.edu/library/guides/citation.html Chicago, MLA, and APA styles]
 +
* [http://www.english.uiuc.edu/cws/wworkshop/writer_resources/citation_styles/citation_styles.htm Writer's Workshop citation style page] (detailed citation style info)
 
* [http://www.legalbluebook.com/ Blue Book] for legal citations
 
* [http://www.legalbluebook.com/ Blue Book] for legal citations
* [http://www.columbia.edu/cu/cup/cgos/idx_basic.html Columbia University Citation Style] developed for modern internet citations
+
* [http://www.guidetoonlineschools.com/tips-and-tools/mla-apa-chicago-cse The Ultimate Style Guide Resources for MLA, APA, Chicago, and CSE]
 +
 
 +
==Other examples==
 +
*[[citations_in_the_wild]]
 +
*[[blog-quote-examples]]
 +
 
 +
 
 +
==See also==
 +
{{citation-related-pages}}

Latest revision as of 16:21, 18 July 2020


The following examples are real world examples of citations found on the web. Please add to this list. The idea is that we get a solid sample of examples and see what commonalities there are amonst them and try to build this microformat so that it can meet 80% of typical uses.

To add examples: please first add a copy of the HTML source for your example at the citation-examples-markup page, then add a description of the example to this page, with a link to the corresponding section on citation-examples-markup. Thanks!

Citation Mark Up in the Wild

Mark up examples, e.g. including from reference publisher's websites (online catalogs), including ABC-CLIO, Greenwood Press, Marshall Cavendish, Oxford University Press (USA) and Thomson Gale. Examples are broken down and organized by element.

ABC-CLIO Product detail page

ABC-CLIO example ABC-CLIO Original Markup

  • title
  • subtitle
  • author
  • image
  • publication date
  • pages
  • volumes
  • specifications (book dimentions 8.5x11, weight, etc)
  • Format - (Hardback, softback)
  • Price
  • ISBN

ACM Digital Library Search Result Examples

The ACM Digital Library is a heavily used computer science literature database.

The ACM Original Markup contained two examples, a journal article and a conference proceedings article.

Journal article:

  • title
  • authors
  • Pages
  • format (PDF)
  • Additional Information
  • abstract
  • index terms
  • journal
  • issue
  • volume
  • pubdate
  • DOI

Conference Proceedings:

  • title
  • authors
  • author institutions
  • source (conference + proceedings name)
  • page
  • year
  • isbn
  • publisher name & address
  • DOI
  • abstract
  • subject category labels
  • keywords

Amazon.com citation info

This is from a detail page on Amazon.com for a book.

Amazon's Original Markup

  • title
  • author
  • series title
  • page

CiteSeer database search results

The CiteSeer database has been another heavily used Computer Science online resource, and it has minimal markup:

  1. CiteSeer's Original Markup
  2. CiteSeer's Original Example 2
  • author
  • title
  • journal
  • pages
  • publication date
  • URL
  • Accessed On

CiteULike.org citation listing

CiteULike

CiteULike's Original Markup

  • title
  • author
  • subjects
  • image
  • Volume
  • Number
  • publication date
  • page

Links to services with the following IDs embedded in the link

  • Z3988
  • DOI
  • Pubmed
  • Hubmed

CiteProc XHTML Output

CiteProc Original Markup

The XHTML output for CiteProc[1] wasn't designed per se as a microformat, but is probably not a bad place to start. It is designed to handle a wide range of content. Here is the APA output:

  • refID (HTML @ID)
  • creator
  • role (to indicate editors and translators)
  • date
  • title
  • volume
  • issue
  • page
  • issue
  • container (a book serves as container for a chapter)
  • type (book, newspaper, proceedings)
  • edition
  • publisher
  • place
  • location (for urls and physical locations)
  • access date (for online items)

Google Cache

Original Markup

  • url
  • retrieved date

Greenwood Press featured book

greenwood press home page Original Markup

  • title
  • subtitle
  • author
  • ISBN
  • Price
  • Description

Greenwood Press product detail page

Product detail page Original Markup

  • Title
  • subtitle
  • authors
  • AuthorsNote
  • BookCode (internal code system)
  • ISBN
  • Page
  • Publisher
  • Publication Date
  • Price
  • Availability
  • MediaType
  • categories
  • LC Card Number
  • LCC Class
  • Dewey Class

IEEE IEEExplore Search Results Markup

Original Markup

  • title
  • authors
  • journal
  • issue
  • volume
  • issue
  • pubdate
  • page
  • Digital Object Identifier (DOI)
  • summary


Marshall Cavendish product page

product page Original Markup

  • ISBN
  • Series
  • Title
  • publisher
  • Specifications (dimentions/weight)
  • Authors
  • Target Audience
  • Price
  • description

Ning

Original Example

  • title
  • publications date
  • retrieved on

Oxford University Press (USA) home page

homepage Original Markup

  • title
  • subTitle
  • edition
  • byline
  • ISBN
  • format - hardback
  • publication Date
  • price
  • description
  • related

Oxford University Press (USA) product detail page

Product page

Original Markup

  • title
  • subTitle
  • edition
  • byline
  • image
  • isbnNumber
  • format - hardback
  • pages
  • publication Date
  • availability
  • price

Thomson Gale product detail page

Original Markup

  • title
  • excerp
  • Volume
  • Publisher
  • description
  • Published date
  • ISBN
  • Product number (internal code system)
  • Pages
  • Shipping Weight
  • price

RFC vCard Example

Original Markup

  • refID (HTML @ID)
  • title
  • publication
  • title
  • Journal
  • Volume
  • Issue
  • page
  • pubdate
  • RFC ID

University of Virginia

Original Markup

  • title
  • publication date
  • retrived on
  • location
  • organization

W3C XHTML Spec Example

Original Markup

  • refID (HTML @ID)
  • URL
  • title
  • subtitle
  • part (1 of X)
  • journal
  • authors
  • pubdate
  • language
  • ISO/IEC ID
  • RFC ID

XHTML1.0 Spec references

PubMed Medical Journal Example

Original Markup

  • abstract
  • title
  • publisher
  • journal
  • date of publication
  • volume
  • issue
  • pages
  • language
  • Review (BOOLEAN YES/NO)
  • PubMedID

BibDesk Default Template

Original Markup

This is a pretty simplistic template for a very general app, but it seems to be OK for most BD users.

  • Title
  • Author
  • Journal
  • Volume
  • Pages
  • Date
  • Url
  • Abstract

Wikipedia

Wikipedia makes extensive use of bibliographic citations, in particular to point readers to further information sources. There are differing formats depending on Wikipedia's language.

Note that Wikipedia values are often links to other pages on Wikipedia (used elsewhere, those URLs might be more canonical, such as to an author or publisher's website).

English Wikipedia

The kinds of citations used on the site run the full gamut. Here are breakdowns of four categories previously mentioned:

Original Markup

Original Markup

  • id
  • title
  • url
  • Retrieved/Accessed On
  • Publication Date
  • Journal
Book

Example Example Markup

  • title
  • author
  • publisher
  • year
  • ISBN
  • url (indirectly via special wikipedia ISBN page)
Book Infobox

The Book Infobox template from wikipedia shows a separate schema that is being used for many book pages on wikipedia to mark up a summary box about the book.

See also Other Wikipedia book templates & Wikipedia citation templates.

  • name
  • title_orig
  • translator
  • image
  • image_caption
  • author
  • illustrator
  • cover_artist
  • country
  • language
  • series
  • subject
  • genre
  • publisher
  • release_date
  • english_release_date
  • media_type
  • pages
  • isbn
  • preceded_by
  • followed_by


Journal Articles

See also:Wikipedia infobox for journals

Example Example Markup

  • author (truncated list)
  • year
  • title
  • journal title
  • journal number
  • page range
  • DOI
Court cases

Example Example Markup

  • title
  • case number
    • note that legal standards for referring to cases include some inscrutable abbreviations that are probably more detailed than just "case number"
  • court name
  • year
  • description/abstract
U.S. Law

Example Example Markup

  • title (title number, for example "50" in "50 U.S.C. chapter 36."
  • chapter title (name, for example "Foreign Intelligence Surveillance" )
  • chapter number
  • section, paragraph, subparagraph numbers (optionally)
Conference presentations

Example Example Markup

  • title
  • location
  • date
  • author (implied - the page is about this person)


Historical Sources

Example Example Markup

  • source / location
  • title
  • publisher
  • year
  • description
  • url
U.S. Patent

Example Example Markup

  • number

German Wikipedia

EPrints.org

example example markup

Based on Expressing Dublin Core in HTML/XHTML meta and link elements and rfc2731, Eprints.org uses the following Dublin Core terms in meta tags in the HTML HEAD of each paper's page:

  • title
  • creator (author)
  • description (abstract)
  • date
  • type
  • identifier (a url)
  • format
  • fulltext
    • this is in a rel-alternate link element. The class is 'fulltext', and the href is the same link as in format, only a valid URL this time.

In the body of the page, they use the following classes, now no longer DC terms:

  • title
  • authors (a flat list with abbreviated names)
  • year
  • conference
  • conference location

Wolfram Mathworld

example example markup

A book. First citation from the page on "Quasi-Monte Carlo Method". Has very little markup.

  • authors
  • title
  • publisher (name and location)
  • date (just year)

LibraryThing

  • [2] (on-line book cataloguing and reviews

Self-Citation Example

One example of an article that includes a statement "please cite as" (a self-description):

  • title
  • author
  • periodical (journal) title
  • volume
  • issue
  • pages
  • year

Citation of an Online Resource

example markup

At University of Michigan's Center for Research on Learning and Teaching you see citations like this:

Chief Academic Officers of the Big 12 Universities (2000). Big 12 Faculty Fellowship Program. Retrieved December 20, 2000 from the World Wide Wed: http://www.k-state.edu/provost/academic/big12/big12guide.htm.

  • title
  • publication year
  • department/author
  • retrieval date
  • URL


"Many, Many Maps," First Monday contains citations to online resources like this:

E.S. Raymond, 2000. “The Cathedral and the Bazaar,” version 3.0, at http://www.catb.org/~esr/writings/cathedral-bazaar/cathedral-bazaar, accessed 18 October 2006.

  • author
  • publication year
  • web page title
  • URL
  • accessed date


"The Role of Technology in World History Teaching" by T. Mills Kelly uses the following citation format for online resources:

Hitler Historical Museum, http://www.hitler.org/. Accessed March 21, 2006.

  • title
  • URL
  • accessed date

OCLC WorldCat Online

Book

example example-makrup

  • title
  • type (book)
  • publisher name
  • publisher location
  • copyright date
  • isbn
  • oclc number
  • subjects
  • author
  • z39.88 (COinS)

Journal

example example-makrup

  • title
  • type (journal)
  • publisher
  • issn
  • oclc number
  • subjects
  • z39.88 (COinS)

West Midland Bird Club

Uses OpenCOinS

Features include:

  • title
  • author
  • date
  • price (historic, at time of publication)
  • format
  • publisher
  • number of pages
  • ISBN/ ISSN
  • product dimensions
  • page numbers of article
  • image(s)

Amazon

Product listings, e.g. [4]

  • title
  • author
  • price
  • format
  • publisher
  • number of pages
  • language
  • ISBN
  • product dimensions
  • shipping weighta
  • average customer review
  • image
  • Amazon.com Sales Rank

ABE

Product listings, e.g. [5]

  • title
  • author
  • ISBN
  • publisher
  • publication date
  • country
  • edition
  • condition
  • whether signed
  • format/binding
  • number of pages
  • bookseller
  • inventory number
  • price
  • shipping costs
  • quantity

Open URL

Upcoming

Open Library

External Lists of Citation Examples

Implied schema

List of all properties

This are a summation of all the properties in the examples, I have tried to logically group them together.

  • title
  • subtitle
  • author
  • editor
  • translator
  • image
  • date (issued, copyrighted, accessed)
  • language
  • description/Summary/abstract
  • excerpt
  • index terms
  • categories (keywords, tags, labels, etc.)

RELATIONS

  • container (publication; periodicals, books, etc.)
  • collection (series and so forth)
  • event (conference, etc.)
  • original (for republished material)

LOCATION INFORMATION

  • pages
  • volume
  • series title
  • Series
  • edition
  • issue
  • publication
  • journal
  • part (1 of X)

PHYSICAL ATTRIBUTES

  • Specifications (dimentions/weight)
  • Format/type (book, newspaper, proceedings)

IDENTIFIERS

  • ISBN
  • LC Card Number
  • LCC Class
  • Dewey Class
  • URL
  • RFC ID
  • ISO/IEC ID
  • DOI
  • PubMedID

PUBLISHER

  • publisher


These are sort of left overs, the are not really about citations, but more about commerce or other things. If they are important we can move them to the above list.

  • refID (HTML @ID)
  • Reviewed (BOOLEAN YES/NO)
  • Availability
  • Price
  • Shipping Weight
  • related
  • Product number (internal system code)
  • BookCode (internal system code)
  • AuthorsNote
  • Additional Information
  • Target Audience

Analysis of Examples

With exception of just a few properties, all of the above appeared in atleast two different examples. The following properties were very common in most the example formats:

  • title
  • subtitle
  • author
  • publication date
  • description
  • pages
  • ISBN
  • publisher

Styles

This section should be moved and incorporated into Citation Formats.

This does NOT define a format, but instead shows how the format should be displayed. This is something out of the direct scope of this project. CSS styles will handle the look-and-feel of the text, and the author can put it in any order they choose. These links are mentioned for two reasons, one is informative, the other is so we know at least meet the minimum properties that are used in the styles.

Other examples


See also